Class 10 English guide 2080 unit 13 A Century of World Population Trends has the complete exercises and notes. it will be very helpful to the students.
A. Match the following words with their correct meanings.
a. populous- v. having a large population: densely populated
b. mortality- vii. the number of deaths in a particular situation or period of time
c. projection- iii. an estimation of what figures will be in the future
d. demographic- ii. relating to the population and different groups within it
e. peak – ix. to reach the highest point or value
f. stabilization- iv. the process of making somebody/something unlikely to change
g. trajectory- i. a path followed by something
h. surpass- vi. to be greater than something; exceed
i. disparate- viii. completely dissimilar
B. Complete the following sentences with the correct information from the text.
a. The highest population growth rate in the past hundred years was 2.1 percent.
b. Population growth rate is likely to reach below 1 percent by mid-twenty-first century.
c. The factors that determine the growth rate of the world population are fertility and mortality.
d. In the early 2020s, Eastern and South-Eastern Asia had the largest population.
e. The population of the sub-Saharan region is likely to reach above 2 billion by the end of the 2040s.
f. The low level of fertility will cause a fall in population size of Europe and Northern America by the late 2030s.
g. India is likely to exceed the population of China by 2023.
C. Answer these questions.
a. What was the size of the world population in the mid-twentieth century?The size of the world population in the mid-twentieth century was 5 billion.
b. What was the fastest population growth rate in the past century?The fastest population growth rate in the past century was around 2.1 percent per year.
c. Why has the population growth rate declined in the recent years?The population growth rate has declined in recent years primarily due to reduced levels of fertility.
d. What is the predicted world population size by 2050?The predicted world population size by 2050 is 9.7 billion.
e. How do fertility and mortality contribute to the size of the population?Fertility and mortality are the two most important factors that contribute to the size of a population. Fertility refers to the number of births that occur within a population, while mortality refers to the number of deaths. When the birth rate is higher than the death rate, the population will grow in size, and when the death rate is higher than the birth rate, the population will decrease in size. Therefore, fertility and mortality rates are crucial in determining the growth or decline of a population.
f. Which countries contribute to the largest population in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia?China and India contribute to the largest population in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, with each having more than 1.4 billion people in 2022.
g. Why will population regions have a different population variation in the next 30 years?Population regions will have different population variations in the next 30 years due to factors such as varying fertility rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and government policies related to population control.
h. Which countries are most likely to contribute to the growth of world population by 2050?The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines and the United Republic of Tanzaia are most likely to to contribute to the growth of world population by 2050.
D. Do you think the world population will increase as projected in the text? Discuss.The world population projection is subject to uncertainty and can be influenced by various factors. While it is estimated to double by 2050, actual population growth may deviate from these projections due to changing conditions and factors such as fertility rates, healthcare advancements, and societal norms.
A. Match the sentence halves and make meaningful sentences.
a. We continued the match- iv. though it was raining heavily.
b. Dolma was selected for the post- vii. even though she had no prior experience for the job.
c. Christina attended the class- viii. despite teh fact that she was not feeling well.
d. I often leave home quite early- i. however, I always reach my office on time.
e. Chintamani never participates in social functions- despite looking very sociable.
f. It was snowing heavily- ii. yet it was not too cold.
g. He did not give up smoking- ix. in spite of the warnings of the doctor.
h. I have never been to Bandipur- iv. though it is not far from my home.
i. We were lost in the town- although we had the map of the town with us.
B. Complete the sentences below in a suitable way. Use the connectives of contradiction where necessary.
a. Although I had not seen him before, I recognized him immediately.
b. Even though it was snowing outside, I went for a walk.
c. In spite of his hard work, he failed to achieve his goal.
d. Although Sarmistha gave a good speech at the function, some audience members seemed uninterested.
e. Despite not having lived in France for very long, she spoke excellent French.
f. I had not eaten anything since last evening, although I wasn’t very hungry.
g. In spite of our best efforts, we were not qualified for the final match.
h. The food was actually quite delicious even though the restaurant was not very popular.
i. Although I had studied for hours, I could only attempt half of the questions.
j. Despite our hard work, she was not pleased with us at all.
Study the graph and chart below and write an interpretation of each of them.
a. Nepali Student Migration
The given bar graph represents the migration of Nepali students over a ten-year period, from 2009/2010 to 2018/2019.
In the academic year 2009/2010, there were 26,948 Nepali students who migrated for educational purposes. The following year, in 2010/2011, the number dropped significantly to 11,912. However, the number of Nepali student migrants gradually increased in the subsequent years.
From 2011/2012 to 2012/2013, there was a slight decrease in migration, with 10,258 and 16,499 students respectively. However, in 2013/2014, there was a notable increase to 28,126 students. This upward trend continued in the next academic years, with 30,696 students in 2014/2015 and 37,037 students in 2015/2016.
The highest increase in student migration occurred from 2015/2016 to 2016/2017, where the number jumped to 50,659 students. This spike indicates a significant rise in the number of Nepali students seeking educational opportunities abroad. The trend continued to rise in the following years, reaching 58,758 students in 2017/2018 and 63,259 students in 2018/2019.
Overall, the diagram suggests that more Nepali students are choosing to study abroad, indicating a growing interest in international education and the pursuit of opportunities beyond their home country.
b. Distribution of Population of Kathmandu Metropolitan in Terms of Languages (Based on the population census of 2011.
The pie chart represents the distribution of the population of Kathmandu Metropolitan in terms of different languages, based on the population census of 2011. It provides valuable insights into the linguistic diversity of the region.
Nepali emerges as the most widely spoken language, with a significant population of 597,570 speakers. This indicates the dominant position of Nepali within Kathmandu Metropolitan. Newari follows as the second most commonly spoken language, with 185,330 speakers, showcasing its importance in the region.
Tamang and Maithili also have notable speaker populations, with 54,109 and 27,521 respectively, further highlighting the linguistic diversity. Additionally, Hindi and Bhojpuri have substantial populations of 17,608 and 15,621 speakers respectively, likely due to cultural and historical connections between Nepal and India. The data indicates that 44,239 people in Kathmandu Metropolitan speak languages categorized as “Others.”
Overall, the chart suggests that while Nepali is the dominant language, there is a rich linguistic diversity within the population of Kathmandu Metropolitan. The presence of various languages reflects the cultural and ethnic diversity of the region.