Unit 9 International Relations | Social Studies Class 10 Guide contains the complete exercises from unit 9. This will be very valuable to the students of class 10.
Unit:-9 Lesson:-1 United Nation and Its Organ
United Nation and Its Organ
A. Very short answer questions.
1. What is the Atlantic charter?
Ans:- A joint declaration made by the US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and British prime minister Winston Churchill in a battleship in Atlantic ocean and issued for the world peace on 14th August, 1941 AD is called Atlantic charter.
2. When was the UNO established?
Ans:- The UNO was established on 24th October, 1945 AD.
3. What is veto power?
Ans:- The special power which is got two to five permanent members of security council which can reject any decision made by general assembly is called meta power.
4. Write the name of the permanent members of countries of the UN Security Council?
Ans:- USA, UK, Russia, France and China are the permanent members countries of UN security council.
5. Who is the present secretary general of UN?
Ans:- Antonio Guterres is the present secretary general of the UN.
B. Short answer questions.
1. Mention the historical background of the establishment of the UN.
Ans:- UN was established as the successor of the league of nations. The League of Nations was established after the First World War in 1920 A.D. It was formed to avoid future war and develop friendly relationship among the countries of the world. However it was failed to establish peace and consequently the Second World War begin in 1939 A.D.
When the Second World War was going on, American President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill were travelling on the ship at the Atlantic Ocean in 1941 AD. There only they agreed to establish another international organization for preventing war and promoting peace in the world. Accordingly, they prepared a Atlantic charter. The Atlantic charter was finally approved and signed by 50 nations through the San Francisco conference held in April-June 1945 AD. Once the Second World War was ended after surrendering of Japan in 12 September 1945 AD. The UNO was established on 24th October in the same year.
2. Do you agree that the role of the UN has been more important in the present context? Present your view.
Ans:- Yes, I agree that the role of UN has been more important in present context. Following are the role played by UN:
i) It helps to maintain peace and security in the world.
ii) It helps to achieve international cooperation in solving various problems.
iii) It works for social progress, economic development and other human right issues.
iv) It also helps in maintaining good relationship among different countries of the world.
In this way, UNO is playing very vital role to maintain good relationship among countries and in promoting peace. It is also acting as peace promoter in the world. It is also giving us lesson that any matter or issues can be solved without war and conflict.
3. Mention the functions of the General Assembly of the UN.
Ans:- The functions of the General Assembly of the UN are listed below:-
i) It has to make plan and policies of the UN that leads it towards its ambition.
ii) It passes the annual budget of the UN that helps to carry out the works of UN.
iii) It appoints secretary general on the recommendation of Security Council.
iv) It elects the members of economic and social council.
v) It elects the judges of international court of justice and also issues a membership through which other country can become its member.
In this way, the General Assembly of the UN is playing a major role for attainment of goal of UN. It is acting as a legislative of any nation.
4. Is the UN successful to achieve its objectives? Present your opinion.
Ans:- Yes, UN is successful to achieve its objectives. The reason how it is successful in its objectives are listed below:-
i) It is able to maintain peace in the many of the countries. It has been 74 years of UN but still now no any world war has taken place.
ii) It is able to establish a good relationship among countries. Previously, many of the countries where not keeping any relation with other countries. But it is the UN which has motivated them to make a good relationship.
iii) It is able to boost up the economic condition of many of the countries. Previously, many countries people where are under poverty line. But it is rarely found nowadays.
iv) It is able to protect the human rights. Previously, the rights of people living in country where violated but it is fully protected nowadays.
Thus, we can say that UN is successful to achieve its objectives.
Unit:-9 Lesson:-2 Specialized Agencies of the United Nations
Specialized Agencies of the United Nations
A. Very Short Answer Questions.
1. What do you mean by the specialized agency of the UN?
Ans:- UN specialized agency mean the separate autonomous inter-governmental agencies affiliated with the UN by special agreements. They work with UN and other agencies through the coordinating mechanism of the economic and social Council of the UN.
2. How are the specialized agencies of the UN funded?
Ans:- UN specialized agencies are funded by both voluntary and assessed contributions.
B. Short Answer Questions.
1. Which one do you think is the most important among the UN Specialized Agencies?
Ans:- UN has several specialized agencies which are affiliated with the UN by special agreements. They all are equally important. Among the specialized agencies, I think International fund for agricultural development (IFAD) is important because:
i) It focuses on rural poverty reduction.
ii) It works with poor people of rural areas in developing countries.
iii) It supports for poverty elimination, fight against hunger and malnutrition.
iv) It helps to rise productivity and Income.
v) It supports to improve the quality of life.
2. Write down the name of four specialized agencies of UNO and list out for programs supported by them.
Ans:- Four specialized agencies and their programs in Nepal are as follows:
|United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)||It provides financial support to repair and reconstruct the heritages of Nepal which are enlisted in World heritage site.|
|International Labour Organization (ILO)||It launches the program to abolish the child labour from Nepal.|
|United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)||It provides food, clothes shelter and other support to the Bhutanese refugees in Nepal.|
|World Health Organization (WHO)||Provides vaccinations to eradicate various epidemic and diseases in Nepal.|
3. Various specialized agencies of UNO have been working for the economic and social development of Nepal. What should be done to make their functions more affective? Write any four measures.
Ans:- The following measures should be taken to make the functions of a specialized agency of UN more effective:
i) Give top priority to marginalize and the underprivileged groups and remote areas in their activities.
ii) Should maintain good governance life transparency, accountability and people’s participation in their activities.
iii) Focus to develop the skill of local people and bring sustainable development by the proper mobilization of local resources.
iv) Identify the real problems of the beneficiaries or stakeholders and also focus on to eradicate poverty, illiteracy and hunger of the target areas.
4. Name any two specialized agencies of UN that work in Nepal and write their short description.
Ans:- Two specialized agencies of UN Working in Nepal are:
a) UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund):- it was established in 11th December 1946 AD. It’s headquarters is in New York, USA. This organization was been conducting for the benefits of children. Following are the works of UNICEF in Nepal:
i) Activities to prevent gender discrimination.
ii) Protection of children from any forms of violence, exploitation and abuse.
iii) To increase the child survival rate in the world.
b) FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization):- it is the largest agency of UN established owner 16th October 1945 AD. Its headquarter is in Rome, Italy. Its function in Nepal are:
i) Provides food stuffs in remote districts.
ii) It helps to raise the level of nutrition.
iii) It support for the growth of agricultural production of the country.
5. Write the functions of United Nations Development Programme and World food Programme in Nepal in two points each with example.
Ans:- The functions of United Nations Development Programme and World food Programme in Nepal are presented below:
Functions of United Nations Development programme
i) It helps in development works of Nepal.
ii) It helps for proper utilization of resources.
Functions of World Food Programme
i) It provides food for the Bhutanese refuses.
ii) It fights against the hunger and starvation in hilly and Himalayan districts.
Unit:-9 Lesson:-3 Nepal’s Role in the United Nations
Nepal’s Role in the United Nations
A. Very Short Answer Questions
1. When did Nepal become the member of the UN?
Ans:- Nepal became the member of UN on 14th December 1955 AD.
2. What is peace keeping force?
Ans:- Peace keeping force is the coalition troops of the member countries of UN send to maintain peace and security in different conflicting areas of the world.
3. Name any four countries where Nepal has deployed its troops as the peace keeping force?
Ans:- any four countries where Nepal has deployed its troops as the peacekeeping force are:- Halti, Chad, Sudan, Liberia.
4. When did Nepal start to send their security forces for peacekeeping mission?
Ans:- Nepal started to send their security forces for peacekeeping mission since 1978.
B. Short Answer Questions.
1. Discuss about the roles played by Nepal in the UN.
Ans:- Nepal has been playing active role in UN as its member country. It has been working for maintenance of international peace and security through various ways which are listed below:
i) Nepal has been participating in the peacekeeping mission of UN continuously after obtaining the membership of UN.
ii) Nepal has been expressing its view on behalf of world peace since 14th December 1955 AD when it got the membership of UN.
iii) Nepal has been advocating for justice in the world.
iv) Nepal has signed the treaties to stop the experiment and manufacturing of atomic weapons and support the disarmament.
v) Nepal has worked as coordinator against racial discrimination.
2. Are you satisfied about the role of Nepal in the UN? Present your opinion in points.
Ans:- Nepal is actively participating in UN activities since 1955 AD. Nepal’s role in UN is not satisfactory as Nepal is not able to raise critical agendas in UN. They are:
i) Issue of border encroachment.
ii) About the places lost in Sugauli treaty.
iii) About the right of landlocked countries during blockade.
iv) About the direct interfere on internal affair and sovereignty of Nepal.
v) Regarding the issue of refugees (Bhutanese and Tibetan).
3. Mention the effort of Nepal to obtain the membership of the UN.
Ans:- The efforts of Nepal to obtain the members of UN are:
i) Nepal attempted to take the membership of UN through Nepal’s Embassy in Britain in 1947 1947 AD.
ii) Nepalese ambassador to Britain Keshar Shumshar discussed with UN secretary Trygve Lie in 1947 AD about membership for Nepal.
iii) Nepal submitted the application for admission to membership in united nation on 13th February 1949 AD.
4. Present your views about the role of UN towards rights and welfare of the landlocked countries?
Ans:- UN has played the following role towards the rights and welfare of the landlocked countries:
i) Landlocked countries have the right to access to sea for trade.
ii) Right to trade and transit has been passed by UN in 1982 AD.
iii) This right has given freedom to landlocked countries for sea routes.
iv) To create blockade for landlocked countries is against the UN law.
v) Landlocked countries have the right to complain in UN if the rights are violated.
Unit:- 9 Lesson-4 Activities of the United Nations in Nepal
Activities of the United Nations in Nepal
A. Very Short Answer Questions.
1. In what fields the UN is providing support to Nepal?
Ans:- The UN is providing support in Nepal in social, economic physical and good governance field.
2. Write the full form of IFAD.
Ans:- The full form of IFAD is International fund for Agricultural Development.
B. Short Answer Questions.
1. Make a list of the activities run by the United Nations Development Programme.
Ans:- The activities done by the United Nations Development Programme are listed below:
i) Poverty reduction
ii) Democratic transition and governance
iii) Energy, environment, climate and disaster risk management
iv) Use of natural resources for running industries
v) Infrastructure software development
2. Discuss the relevancy of the UN Habitat.
Ans:- Un-habitat is the United Nations agency for human settlement and sustainable urban development. It was established in 1978 AD. Its main objective is to improve the condition of people who are living in slums. Similarly it also manages the settlement for the victims of earthquake, tsunami, flood landslide, etc. It settles the problem of refugee is by managing habitat. Many peoples are compared to live in unhygienic environment and as a result they suffer from disease. Most people are unaware about safe and secure settlement. In such situation, UN habitat role is to overcome and solve the problems which the people are facing
3. Suggest any four ways to make the programs run by IFAD more effective.
Ans:- IFAD is specialized Agency of UN dedicated to eradicate rural poverty in developing countries. Any four ways to make programmes run by IFAD more effective are:
i) Help to provide irrigation in dry land.
ii) Run training programmes for farmers on commercial agriculture.
iii) Make availability of improved seeds, machine, agricultural tools, etc.
iv) Manage the market for the goods produced by the farmers.
v) Make the provision of regular supervision on its activities.
4. Prepare a list of the International Non-Government Organizations working in Nepal.
Ans:- A list of international Non-Government Organizations working in Nepal are:
i) World Health Organisation (WHO)
ii) International Labour Organization (ILO)
iii) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
iv) World Food Programme (WFP)
v) United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)
vi) United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
vii) United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)
viii) Leo Clubs
xx) SOS Children Village
xxii) Red Cross
xxiii) Save the Children
5. Write a letter to the head of the WHO suggesting the ways to make its program more effective.
4th July, 2017
The Programme Coordinator WHO
Sub:- About making activities effective
World Health Organization is actively involved in promotion of international public health. It supports Nepal for improvement of health status of the Nepalese people. It has been working in Nepal in the coordination with ministry of Health. For making activities of WHO effective, It should do the following things:-
i) It should increase the public awareness.
ii) It should organize the health check camp in remote areas.
iii) It should provide more technical assistant in health sector.
iv) It should establish hospital in remote areas.
v) It should run the programme of free distribution of medicine.
vii) It’s service should be rendered to remote districts.
At last, if the above mentioned activities are carried out, the program of WHO would be effective.
Ratneshwar secondary school,
Unit:-9 Lesson:-5 Current affairs and Their Effects
Current affairs and Their Effects
A. Very Short Answer Questions
1. What do you mean by current affair?
Ans:- Current Affairs are events of political, economic, environmental, or social interest or importance happening in the world at the present time.
2. What is terrorism?
Ans:- Terrorism is the violence or threat of violence carried out to fulfill the political, economic, social or any other aim.
3. What is meant by disarmament?
Ans:- Disarmament is a process of reducing or limit the use of weapons in which there is balance cut off of old weapons and disposal of powerful weapons such as nuclear bomb and biological weapons.
4. Define atomic power.
Ans:- The energy/power which is produced due to the nucleus fusion/ fission.
B. Short Answer Questions.
1. What are the current affairs happening at present. List any four of them.
Ans:- there are several events and incidents happening in the world. Some of them are:
i) Population growth
iii) Civil war
iv) Refugee problem
v) Climate change
vi) Underground mine
viii) Environment pollution
2. How can terrorism be ended? Write in points.
Ans:- Terrorism is the violence of the threat of violence carried out to fulfill the political, economic, social or any other aim. Terrorism can be ended in the following ways:-
i) Discussion should be carried out with the terrorist group to find out the main cause.
ii) Table talk, dialogue should be carried out in the presence of social worker, journalists, human right activists etc.
iii) Every stakeholder should work neutrally.
iv) Both the groups should be flexible.
v) Just full demand should be fulfilled.
3. Discuss about the preventive measures of Zika Virus.
Ans:- The Zika Virus spread from Brazil and soon it affected about 42 countries terrifying the whole world. It is caused by Aedes-Aegypti mosquito bite. It’s symptoms are fever, severe headache, pain in muscle and joints. Preventive measures of Zika Virus are given below:
i) To protect ourselves from mosquitoes bites by using mosquito nets or wearing long-sleeved shirts and long trousers.
ii) To test blood before any blood transfusion.
iii) To keep surrounding of our house clean.
iv) To launch massive cleaning campaign.
v) Not to use others personal belongings.
4. Write the effects of the Ozone layer depletion.
Ans:- Any four effects of Ozone layer depletion are:
i) Effect on flora and fauna.
ii) Climate change.
iii) Global warming and greenhouse effect.
iv) Increase in disease.
v) Rise of water level of sea and ocean.
vi) Quick melting of snow in polar region.
vii) Forest fire, draught, flood, etc.
viii) Effect on ecosystem.
5. What efforts have been made to keep the environment clean in Nepal? Make a list of them.
Ans:- Nepal has made the following efforts to keep environment clean:-
i) Provision of ‘Right to clean environment’ has been made in constitution.
ii) Ministry of population and Environment has launched several campaigns on environment protection.
iii) Community forest and afforestation programs have been conducted.
iv) Council of environment protection has been established to prepare plans and policies on environment protection.
6. Prepare an editorial to a national daily highlighting the negative ethics from the use of explosive materials.
The Kathmandu post
Negative effects of explosive materials
Explosive materials affect the life of people after explosion. Such substances explode if disturbed by pressure or the closeness of something like metal. It unknown that where such materials are kept. Explosive materials are kept targeting someone or something. But civilians may be victimized. Thousands of innocent people were being killed by it everyday. It causes the loss of life and property. It is hazardous not only for women health, it also pollute the environment. It was widely used during the World Wars. It was also used during the 10 years long armed conflict in Nepal. To be safe from such explosive material, we should be careful while moving in sensitive areas and touching suspected objects. If it is seen, we would inform the security authority so that they can diffuse in on time.
Unit:-9 Lesson:-6 Globalization and Localization
Unit-9 Lesson- 6
Globalization and Localization
A. Very Short Answer Questions
1. What is globalization?
Ans:- Globalization means the opening of local and nationalistic perspective to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdependent world with free transfer of capital, goods, services across national boundary.
2. Write any two negative aspects of globalization.
Ans:- The two negative aspects of globalization are:
i) Social crime, addiction, human trafficking and other social problems and evils increase.
ii) Country cannot be independent.
3. Define localization?
Ans:- Localization means the process of making something local in character or restricting it to a particular place.
B. Short Answer Questions
1. Write an editorial focusing on the advantages of globalization?
The Himalayan times।
Advantages of globalization
The free transference of individual, goods, service, capital and information crossing the national border is globalization. This is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of worldviews, ideas, products, and other aspects of culture. It is very beneficial for all. It has helped to expand foreign relation, reduce poverty and decrease trade imbalance. Technology and scientific sector have developed. People are getting quality goods in low price due to International competition. International relation, corporation, mutual understandings between the countries have increased. Free trade, flow of capital, trade diversification, increment in foreign investment, etc. have developed. Specially, globalization is advantageous for developing countries as it helps to improve the living style of people.
2. Discuss about the negative effects of the globalization.
Ans:- The negative effects of the globalization are:
i) Least developed countries and developing countries are comparatively less benefited from the science and technology.
ii) lndigenous culture, tradition, value of norms get degraded and the trend of blindly adopting foreign culture and tradition increases in the society.
iii) Dependency increases in economy, National unity and nationality become weak which makes the weak countries weaker.
iv) Developing and least developed countries May lack skill manpower due to the trend of brain-drain.
v) Increase in drug trafficking, use of weapons, infectious disease and social deviation.
vi) Extensions of multinational companies affect the national economy. The gap between rich and poor gets wider.
vii) Pressure by rich and powerful countries on weak countries to follow their perspectives and principles.
3. Discuss the economic features of globalization.
Ans:- The economic features of globalization are as follows:
i) Availability of foreign employment.
ii) People can use best quality of foreign goods in cheap price.
iii) Expansion of trade and industry.
iv) Poor country gets economic and financial support.
v) Increment in import and export trade.
vi) Scientific and technical support available.
vii) Development of tourism sector.
4. Write the difference between globalization and localization.
Ans:- The differences between globalization and localization are:-
|1.||It has advanced means and researches internationally.||It has limited means and resources inside the certain locality.|
|2.||It focuses on worldwide technology, economy, etc.||It focuses on indigenous knowledge and technology|
|3.||It takes the world as global village.||It is based on nationalistic feeling and vision.|
|4.||The economic, social and political activities are independent in the countries of the world.||The economic, social and political activities do not concern with other countries of the world.|
5. Mention the positive and negative aspects localization.
Ans:- The positive and negative aspects of localization are given below:
|S.N.||Positive effects/strength of localization||Negative effects/weakness of localization|
|1.||It focuses on the development of backward class.||It obstructs in the supply of international goods and services.|
|2.||It emphasizes on the people-centered development.||It emphasizes on the development of only a limited and small area.|
|3.||It opposes the interference of foreign countries and protects the nationality.||It makes the people orthodox towards their caste or class.|
|4.||It focuses in the uses of local products.||It makes the people deprived of foreign culture and economy.|
|5.||It preserves and promotes the indigenous culture and tradition.||It prevents the goods and services from internationalization.|
|6.||It discourages the internationalization of labourer and goods.||It focuses on the development of a particular area rather than the whole country.|