Our Earth Unit-6 |Social Studies Class 10 Guide

Our Earth Unit-6 Social Studies Class 10 Guide is given below with complete notes and eercises.

Unit:-6, Lesson:-1 Climates of the world

Unit-6 Lesson-1

Climates of the world

1. Make the list of the factors affecting the climate. And explain any three of them.

Ans:- The factors affecting the climate are listed below:

i)  Altitude

ii)  Distance from sea

iii)  Nature of wind

iv)  Slope of land

v)  Natural vegetation

vi)  Presence of mountain

vii)  Latitude

viii)  Soil

ix)  Ocean current

Any three of above are explained below:

i  Altitude:- It is hot at lower altitude and cold at higher altitude. At lower attitude, the density of atmosphere is thicker as it contains more amounts of dust particles and water vapor whereas it is thinner in upper altitude. In each 165m altitude the temperature reduces by 1degree Celsius.

ii)  Distance from sea:- the nature of land and sea is different. The land heat and cools down faster whereas sea takes more time to cool and heat. During summer it is hot on land but sea is still cold. Similarly during winter, it is cold on land but still not in sea. Due to such phenomenon places near to sea experiences mild climate, means neither too hot nor too cold but places farther from sea experience extreme climate.

iii)  Latitude:- Due to latitudinal extension or distance from the equator, the climate differs in different places. The places near to the equator or with lower altitude experiences hot climate whereas the places farther from equator or with higher altitude experiences cold climate.

2.  How many types of climate are found in the world on what bases? Make a list of them.

Ans:- They are all together 13 types of climate found in the world. Twelve of them are based on latitudinal extension and one is based on altitude.

The climates of world are listed below:

i)  Equatorial climate

ii)  Tropical grassland climate

iii)  Tropical desert climate

iv)  Tropical monsoon climate

v) Mediterranean climate

vi)  China type of climate

vii)  Temperate desert climate

viii)  Cool temperate oceanic climate

ix)  Temperate grassland climate

x)  Lawrence climate

xi)  Coniferous climate

xii)  Tundra climate

xiii)  High mountainous climate

3.  Give geographical reasons for following statement.

a)  It is hotter in Sri Lanka than Nepal.

Ans:- It is hotter in Sri Lanka than Nepal because Sri Lanka lies closer to  equator than Nepal.

b)  It is hotter in Nepalgunj than Jumla.

Ans:- it is hotter in Nepalgunj then Jumla because Jumla is at higher altitude the Nepalgunj.

c)  Mumbai experiences mild climate while Banaras experiences extreme climate.

Ans:- Mumbai experiences mild climate while Banaras experiences extreme climate because Mumbai is closer to sea while Banaras is far away from sea.

d)  Manang and Mustang remain dry and cold throughout the year.

Ans:- Manang and Mustang remains dry and cold throughout the year because it is situated on leeward slope which receives very less rainfall.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-2 Tropical Zone

Unit-6 Lesson-2

Tropical Zone

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  Mention any four features of Equatorial Climate Region?

Ans:- Four features of Equatorial Climate Region are as follows:

i)  Since it lies in between 0 degree to 5 degree latitude sun rays are always in the surface so that temperature is high about (27 degree Celsius) throughout the year.

ii)  Climate is hot, wet and humid throughout the year and there is no seasonal change.

iii)  Conventional rainfall takes place in every afternoon with big lighting and thunder.

iv)  Due to hot and wet climate throughout the year, there is dense evergreen forest the ‘Rain forest’ along with thousands of species of flora and fauna. Trees are very tall with hardwood and broad leaves with canopy.

2.  Describe the way of living of the people of Equatorial Climatic Region.

Ans:- The equatorial climatic region is sparsely populated due to unfavorable climate. People follow primitive way of living. They live by hunting wild animals and gathering wild fruits and edible roots. However some advanced forest dwellers have started shifting cultivation along with hunting and food gathering. The lifestyle of the people living in South East Asian countries like Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore are more advanced than the people of Amazon and Cargo region due to the European influence and a better place for human habitat and economic activities.

3.  Why is tropical monsoon climate favorable for agriculture?

Ans:- Tropical monsoon climate is favorable for agriculture because of the following reasons:

i)  There is enough rainfall in summer which supports for the upcultivation of summer crops like rice, Maize, jute, millet etc.

ii)  Winter is dry and it is suitable for harvesting the summer crops and cultivation of winter crops like wheat, oil seeds, lentils, vegetables, etc.

iii)  Soil is fertile in most of the parts of this reason and many river basins are situated in this climate region.

iv)  Irrigation facility is available due to presence of several rivers.

v)  Agriculture is one of the oldest occupations of the people in this region.

4.  Describe the economic activities and lifestyle of the people of tropical desert.

Ans:- Tropical desert has very hot climate so the economic activities and lifestyle is difficult. The people lead nomadic life. The people live in a small numbers, they live by hunting and gathering food. In Oasis, people live permanently due to availability of water. In Oasis, people are both cultivators and herdsmen. They grow rice, maize, fruits and vegetables. Sheep, goats and camel are reared in the dries edge of Oasis. The people in Oasis live in the houses with thick mud walls and flat roofs. In recent days, a few of desert area are attracting immigrants due to rich mineral deposits. These areas have become most prosperous one in the world with all the facilities. Overall, the desert climatic region has very poor lifestyle and low economic possibility.

5.  Why do very few people live in desert?

Ans:- Very few people live in desert because of the following reasons:

i)  Most of the places are covered with sand and temperature is excessively high.

ii)  There is a scarcity of water everywhere except Oasis.

iii)  Agriculture is not possible in most of the places.

iv)  Not suitable for human settlement because a very hot, dry climate and extremely poor vegetation.

6.  Differentiate between Tropical Desert and Equatorial Climate.

Ans:- The difference between tropical desert and equatorial climate is presented below:

Tropical desertEquatorial climate
It lies between the latitudes of 20 degree to 30 degree north and South of the equator.Found in latitude of zero degree to 5 degree north and South of the equator.
Hot and dry throughout the year.Hot and wet throughout the year.
Natural vegetation is extremely poor.Dense evergreen forest are found.
Experience to seasons-summer and winter.No season change.

7.  Which climatic region of the world is called ‘Zoo of the world’? Why?

Ans:- Savanna climatic region is called the Zoo of the world because this climate region is the home of several carnivorous and herbivorous animals like lion, tiger, leopard, zebra, giraffe, elephant and rhinoceros. One finds a greater number of animals and more varieties of species in the Savanna region than in any other parts. It is also the home of many types of birds like ostrich, emus, cassowary and rhea. These birds are large and heavy, and have long legs and neck which give them a wide range of vision.

8.  Write any four characteristics of Tropical Grassland (Savanna).

Ans:- Four characteristics of Tropical Grassland(Savanna) are as follows:

i)  The climatic region experience two seasons summer and winter.

ii)  It is very hot in summer and dry in winter, less rainfall occurs in summer.

iii)  The rainfall is not enough to grow the trees so this climate supports the growth of tall grasses.

iv)  It is the home of several carnivorous and herbivorous animals like lion, tiger, Leopard, deer, zebra, giraffe, elephants and rhinoceros so that it is also called ‘Zoo of the world’.

9.  The life of the people who live in Savanna region is of primitive type, but there is a great possibility of development in this region. Discuss in class and write a paragraph on it.

Ans:- There is a great possibility top development in Savanna region because now a days this region has been turned into many national parks and wildlife reserves. the region has become the centre of attraction for thousands of tourist. Similarly, many people come for shooting of movies so there is high possibility to develop film industry. There are also large plantation of tea, coffee, sugar cane, cotton and tobacco. It is easy to clear grass and trees to make cultivable land. So there is a great possibility of development.

B.  Long Answer Questions

1.  Describe the equatorial climate based on climatic region, climatic characteristic, natural vegetation and animals, and its effect on lifestyle.

Ans:- Equatorial climatic region extends between 0 degree to 5 degrees latitude in both hemisphere. It is hot throughout the year as the Sun rays falls straight there. Convectional rainfall with thunder and lighting takes places everyday. There is no season change. There is hot, wait and humid climate all over the year.

The forest is thick and luxuriant with plenty of trees, creepers, bushes and shrubs, ferns and orchids. The dense growth of plant life is due to high temperature, heavy rainfall and plenty of sunlight in this region. A variety of species of birds and animals are found here. About 90% of the animal species found in the amphibians are also found in these forests like snake, lizards and different kind of frogs. Other animals found here are chimpanzee, leopard, gorilla. Crocodiles and hippopotamus are found in swamps and rivers.

The lifestyle of people in equatorial climatic region is primitive and very difficult. Due to hot and wet climate, the native people are lazy. Red Indians and pygmies have no permanent settlement. They lead nomadic life. Industry and commerce are not well developed. People earn their living by hunting and gathering, animals rearing and temporary forming. The climate is suitable for agriculture but not suitable for settlement. But the life of people of East Indies are advance due to European influence. Population density is high there. They are engaged in tourism, trade, industries etc.

2.  Tropical Grassland has a great possibility of tourism development. However, most of the people enjoy their traditional way of living. Find the reasons. What programs should be launched to uplift their lifestyle? Write.

Ans:- the cast extensive grassland of Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, etc. African country is called Tropical Grassland. It is also called Savanna grassland. It has a great possibility of tourism development. However, most of them enjoy their traditional way of living because of the following reason:

i)  Lack of awareness

ii)  Lack of education

iii)  Lack of infrastructure of development

iv)  Lack of using of modern technology

Following programs should be launched to uplift their lifestyle:

i)  Training should be given to promote tourism.

ii)  Modern agriculture system should be developed by providing machines, irrigation fertilizers, pesticides, etc.

iii)  Encouragement should be done for commercial animal rearing.

iv)  Education and awareness program should be effectively implemented.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-3 Temperate Zone

Unir-6 Lesson – 3

Temperate Zone

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  Describe the climatic features of Mediterranean climatic region.

Ans:- Hot- dry summer and cold-wet winter is the most important characteristic of Mediterranean climate. Mostly the rainfall takes place in summer seasons in other climatic region whereas the rainfall occurs in winter seasons in Mediterranean region because of the influence of westerly winds blowing across the sea to land. It is dry in Summer because trade winds blow in summer. Average temperature is 21° Celsius in Summer and about 10° Celsius in winter. Rainfall varies 50 cm to 100 cm.

2.  Describe the economic activities of the people of Mediterranean climatic region.

And:- Agriculture is the main occupation of the people where water is available for irrigation. People grow wheat, fruits, vegetables and flowers. Important fruits grown in this region are peaches, pears, plum, apricots, cherries and grapes. 70% of the world’s exports of citrus fruits are produces here so this region is called the garden of the world. Besides agriculture people are engaged in animal husbandry, mining, industries and fishing. This region produces over 65% of the world’s total output of wine. California in North America has the largest oil refineries in the world. Sunshine, sea scenery has promoted tourism industry. Large coastal areas are used for fishing. Wine industry is the specialty of this region.

3.  Point out four differences in vegetations and lifestyle found in Equatorial and Mediterranean climatic region. 


Equatorial climatic RegionMediterranean climatic region. 
Dense evergreen rain forests with thousandsof species of flora and fauna is found.Evergreen natural vegetation is found.
The trees are tall with hard wood and broad leaves.Trees are short along with thick bark, long roots and small leaves.
Some tribes are living by hunting wild animals and gathering wild fruits and edible roots.People are engaged in industry, trade, tourism, viticulture etc.
Way of living of people is different. Life ofpeople in eastern islands is modern. But, some tribes in rainforest are still following primitive life.Life style is modern and life standard is very high.

4.  Describe in short about human life in Mediterranean region.

And:- Mediterranean region occupies 1% land area where 5% population of the world’s population live. It is thickly populated next to tropical monsoon climate. Agriculture is the main economic activities. They produce barley, wheat, tobacco, pulse, paddy sugarcane, etc. This region is very famous for citrus fruits farming. It produces 70% of the world’s export of citrus fruit like lemon, orange, lime and grapefruit so that this region is called “Garden of the World”. This region produces 65% wine of the world. It is famous for vacation celebration due to mild temperature. It is highly developed in infrastructures.

5.  State climate and natural vegetation of Temperate Grassland in four points.

Ans:- The climate and natural vegetation of Temperate Grassland in four points are:

i)  Temperate grassland is situated in between 45° and 60° latitude in north and 30° and 40° in south. The temperature in summer is high and cold in winter.

ii)  Since temperate grasslands are situated in the inner part of the continents they experience extreme type of climate. i.e. summer is very hot and winter is very cold.

iii)  The averages annual rainfall varies between 25 to 65 cm. Due to less rainfall tress are very rare.

iv)  This climate favours to grew soft and flowery grasses. The grasses of this region are very short and nutritions.

6.  What are the reasons for the development of wheat cultivation and animal husbandry in Temperate Grassland? 

Ans:- Wheat cultivation does not require sufficient rainfall and irrigation facility, The grassland in this region is very fertile and climate is suitable for wheat cultivation. Moreover, Bothe climate of Temperate Grassland is most ideal for the wheat cultivation since the rain comes during the wheat growing period. The cultivation is done professionally using modern technology. So, wheat cultivation is very developed in temperate grassland.

Animal husbandry is developed here because plenty of nutritious grasses is available everywhere. Many modern animal farm houses, meat production centers and milk collection centres are established here.

7.  Why is Prairies Grassland called the Granary of the world? What lesson Nepal should learn from it? 

Ans:- The Prairies Grassland of the USA and Canada has been turned into commercial wheat farming. The USA and Canada use modern tools and technology in wheat farming and they became the largest producer and exporter of wheat in the world. So the prairies grassland is called the Granaries of the Word.

Nepal has also got suitable land for the cultivation of different crops. As Nepal extended from low land to high land, various types of food crops and cash crops along with fruits can be cultivated in large amount. But, till today there is subsistence type of farming and very low agriculture production in Nepal. So, Nepal should learn the land management, modern and scientific technology and commercial cultivation of different crops from the farming and excessive production of grains of Prairies.

8.  Why does Argentina export meat and Australia exports wool?

Ans:- There is vast grassland in Argentina called Pampas where plenty of nutritious grasses are available for animal. So, animal husbandry is done here in large scale using modern tools and technologies. The large amount of meat and milk obtained from the animal husbandry is mostly exported to Europe through the waterways as Argentina is linked by the ocean and sea routes.

Similarly, Australia exports wool because there are huge pasture lands called Downs which is very suitable for sheep rearing. Modern machines are used to produce wool and this is exported worldwide through the cheap waterways.

9.  Describe briefly Temperate Monsoon Climate.

Ans:- Temperate Monsoon Climate ( China type of Climate) is found east of Asia (China, Japan and korea), South east part of Australia, South east part of the USA particularly 30° to 40°/45° latitude in both hemisphere. There are two seasons-hot and wet summer and cold and dry winter. Average temperature in summer is around 25°c and 12°c in winter. Rainfall occurs due to the Monsoon wind. The annual rainfall varies from 75 cm to 125 cm. Mixed vegetation like evergreen, deciduous and coniferous vegetation. Like tropical monsoon, temperate monsoon climate is also suitable for cultivation of different crops. People are engaged in agriculture, silk farming, fishing, dairy farming, tourism, manufacturing, etc.

10.  Describe the mode of life of the people of Temperate Zone.

Ans:- Temperate region is the most developed region of the world. The USA and Canada of North America, all countries of Europe, China, Japan, Korea of Asia and the developed regions of Australia are situated in this region. North-west Europe, south-east Canada, east and north-east USA are very developed in different aspects of development. Large scale industries, modern means of transportation and communication, education and health facilities are available here. Density of population is very high and one can see the developed form of human civilization in this region. The Temperate grassland of this region is famous for animal husbandry and wheat cultivation. So, this region is called the “granary of the world.” People living in this region used modern machine and technology in animal husbandry and wheat cultivation. Mediterranean region is famous for production of citrus fruits, wine making and marketing. The wine of millions of rupees are exported by the countries like France, Greece, Italy, Spain, etc. The film industry is very much developed in the California of USA.

11.  Compare between the life style of tropical region and temperate region.

Ans:- Amongst the three climatic zones, most of the people of the world are living in Tropical and Temperate zones. Because of the favourable climate for the human habitat temperate zone is more densely populated than the tropical zone.

In few parts of tropical zones like Amazon Basin, areas of desert climate and savanna regions, some human groups-tribes are still living primitive, traditional or nomadic life. But, in all parts of temperate zone human life is modern and developed.

Tropical Monsoon region of Tropical Zone is densely populated. This region is suitable for the cultivation of different crops. Similarly, Mediterranean region and temperate grassland of temperate zone are used for commercial farming, horticulture and animal husbandry.

Temperate regions like cool temperate oceanic region, temperate grasslands, temperate monsoon and mediterranean region are highly developed in overall aspects of human life than the equatorial, tropical desert and tropical grassland of tropicalbzone.

12.  Describe the climatic features of Temperate Monsoon Climate.

Ans:- Temperate Monsoon Climate region lies between the latitudes of 30° to 40° north and south of equator. It is warm and moist in summer and cool and dry in winter. The average summer temperature varies from 21°c to 27°c and winter temperature varies from 5°c to 12°c. Rainfall is well distributed and more than moderate. Annual range of rainfall is 75 cm to 125 cm. This climate region is occasionally affected by tropical cyclones and hurricanes.

13.  Describe climate and natural vegetation of cool temperate oceanic climate in four points.

Ans:- The climate and natural vegetation of cool temperate oceanic climate are describe below in four points:

i)  Cool temperate oceanic climate is equable; it has neither hot summer nor cold winter.

ii)  The average temperature in summer is 15°c and winter is 5°c. Due to the influence of Oceanic current a light rainfall takes place almost throughout the year. The average rainfall is 75 to 150 cm.

iii)  Mixed type of forest is found in this climatic region. Generally, deciduous forest is found in low land and coniferous forest is found highland.

iv)  The forest of low land has round outlines with thick trunks, out spreading branches and hard woods. So, this region is also called “Wood Land”.

14.  Differentiate between Mediterranean Climate and Temperate Oceanic Climate.

Ans:- Difference between Mediterranean Climate and Temperate Oceanic Climate is mentioned below:

S.N.Mediterranean ClimateTemperate Oceanic Climate
I)This climate is extended from 30° to 40° latitude in both hemisphere.This climate is extended from 40° to 60° latitude in north and 40° to 50° latitude in south.
II)It is hot and dry in summer and warm and wet in winter.Its summer is warm and winter is cool. The range of temperature in summer and winter is less because of the influence of ocean.
III)Average temperature of summer is 21°c and about 10°c in winter Annual rainfall is about 25 cm to 75cm.Average temperature of summer is15°c and 5°c in winter. Annual averagerainfall is 75 cm to 150 cm.
IV)There is evergreen natural vegetation. Trees are short with small and oily leaves, long roots and thick bark.Vegetation is mixed type deciduous forest is found in low land and coniferous forest is found in high land.

B.  Long Answer Questions.

1.  List the climates found in the temperate zone and mention one major characteristic of each in a table.

Ans:- Temperate zone extends roughly between latitudes 30° and 60° North and South of the equator. This region is neither too hot nor too cold. The climatic regions and their characteristics are presented I given table:

S.N.Climatic resionClimatic characteristics
1.MediterraneanHot and dry summer and mild and wet winter. Rainfall occurs enough in winter.The wester lies lows from the sea to land bring rainfall in winter and dry trade wind doesn’t cause rain in summer.
2.Temperate Monsoon ClimateSummer is hot and winter is cold.Rainfall takes place in summer.
3.Temperate desert climateRainfall takes place in summer.Summer is hot and winter is cold.Big gap between summer and winter temperature.The climate is extreme type.
4.Cool Temperate Oceanic ClimateIt is neither hot in summer or cold in winter.It is influenced by the seas so summer is cool and winter is moderate.Rainfall occurs throughout the year.
5.St. Lawrance Climate or Mechurian ClimateSummer is warm and winter is very cold.This region is influenced by cold Ocean current.Rainfall throughout the year.
6.Temperate Grassland ClimateNo influence of sea so the climate is extreme.Very hot summer and very cold winter.Convectional rainfall occurs in summer and Snow fall in winter.
Cold Temperate or ConiferousLumberingCollecting medicinal herbsSupplying furry skins of animals

2.  Explain the economic activities of Temperate Zone.

Ans:- The economic activities of temperate zone are presented in the following table:

S.N.RegionsEconomic Activities
1.Mediterranean ClimateAgricultural productions like maize, barley, wheat, beans, tobacco, fruits, etc.Citrus fruit like grape, lemon, orange, etc.Wine industry, chocolate jam, juice industry.
2.Temperate Monsoon ClimateModern agricultural businessSilk productionExport of industrial productions
3.Cool Temperate Oceanic ClimateTrade and industrySheep rearing and fishing
4.Temperate desertCattle rearingTrade of wool and leatherAgriculture in water available areas
5.St. Lawrance or Manchurian ClimateTrade and industryLumbering, fishery and animal rearing, etc.
6.Temperate grasslandWheat productionAnimal rearing and dairy production
7.Cold temperate or coniferousLumberingCollecting medicinal herbsSupplying furry skins of animals etc.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-4 Frigid Zone

Unit-6 Lesson – 4

Frigid Zone

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  Frigid Zone remains extreme cold throughout the year. Why?

Ans:- The latitudes between 60° to 90° is frigid zone. It is called North Pole in northern hemisphere and South pole in southern hemisphere. Antarctica continent lies in southern pole; It is extreme in frigid zones because of following reasons:

i)  The temperature in this zone remains -45°C throughout the year.

ii)  The sun rays falls slantly on polar region so very less sun rays reach there and it is cold.

ii)  The earth is inclined in 133/2, that’s why North Pole is warm and South Pole is extremely cold.

2.  Compare Tundra region with Antarctica region.


S.N.Tundra regionAntarctica region
1.The latitude between 70° and 90° in the north pole is Tundra region.The latitude between 66° to 90° in South pole is Antarctica region.
2.Here is less cold as the earth is inclined in 133/2° to the Sun.Here is extreme cold as very less sun rays fall due to inclination of earth is 133/2°.
3.Here is -45°C temperature only in winter.Here is always less than -45°C temperature.

3.  Who are Inuits? Where and how do they live?

And:- The native people living in frigid zone are called Inuits. They live in northern Canada by hunting, fishing and trapping seal and other fur bearing animals.

4.  What is Taiga? Write its economic importance.

Ans:- Taiga is a vast evergreen coniferous soft wooded forest found in Siberian climatic belt. It is important for lumbering, hunting and trapping animals for fur. It is also rich in large mineral deposit and people are also engaged in mining.

5.  The people living in northern polar region are the citizens of developed and economically rich countries. However, they are living a primitive life. Present your logic.

Ans:- Eskimos and Inuit live in northern polar region. They are the indigenous group of North America, Alaska, Northern part of Russia and Canada. They are the citizen of developed countries, however they are not touched by modernization because of following reasons:

i)  There is very less chance of industry, trade and employment.

ii)  They live in snow covered region so construction of infrastructure is very difficult.

iii)  The geographical structure is very complex to provide facilities.

iv)  They like to live primitive lifestyle than modern lifestyle.

6.  Compare between the people living in northern polar region and people of your locality from backward community. List the similarities and differences between them.

Ans:- Inuits and Eskimos are the indigenous tribe of northern polar region whereas Raute,  Chapang, Hayu, Kusunda are the people of backward communities of Nepal. Following are the similarities and differences between them:

1.The person of both places lives a primitive life.Nepalese backward people live in forest whereas the people of polar area live in snow covered area.
2.They have no influence of modernization.There is less chance of development in  Nepal whereas there is more chances of development in polar region.
3.Both of them have their typical tradition.Nepalese backward people are from less developed country whereas people of polar region are of developed country.
4.Both of them are deprived of infrastructure, trade, industries, job, etc.

7.  There is a long gap between the lengths of day and night in Frigid Zone. Why?

And:- During the rotation of the earth, the northern hemisphere of the earth goes close to sun and it becomes warm. Gradually, the temperature increases and brightness too. This remains near about six months. So there is six month’s day. Just opposite of it. For six months, the southern hemisphere of the earth remains far from the sun. So there is dark for six months in southern hemisphere as the light cannot reach there. The same process happens in vice-versa in both hemisphere. So there is a long gap between the length of day and night in frigid zone.

8. Why has Antarctica region become a center of attraction for the scientists and explorers? Present your logics.

Ans:- Antarctica is located in southern hemisphere. It is humanless area. The whole area of this continent is covered with snow. It is very difficult to reach in this region due to extreme cold and darkness for 6 to 8 months. In rest of the 3 to 4 months, the scientists and explorer go there for research due to following reasons:

i)  To find out the possibility of tourism there.

ii)  To study about seal, penguin and other animals.

iii)  To study about the possibility of minerals in that region, and

iv)  To study about other creature and plants fossils.

9.  What are the economic activities of the people in Frigid Zone? Mention.

Ans:- There is no any economic activities in Antarctica as there is no human settlement. But in northern polar region lumbering is main economic activity. There is vast belt of coniferous forest in this region. People run furnitures, paper and pulp, match stick industries. Similarly, the people are involved in fishing, hunting, etc. Tourism, mining are also developing nowadays due to construction of infrastructures.

10.  What Is Igloo? Who use it?

Ans:- Igloo is a house made of ice block in polar region. It is used by indigenous tribe of polar region.

11.  Give short Introduction to the following:


Turplk – The tent like house made of animal skin and drift wood.

Lumbering – it is a trading activity of cutting, preparing and selling timber.

Eskimos – Eskimos are the people or native tribe of Greenland.

Lapps – Lappe are the native tribe of Scandinavia.

12.  Describe the lifestyle of the people of Tundra or cold region of Polar Zone.

And:- The average density of population of the people in this zone is one person per square kilometer. The life of the people is very hard and full of struggle. The native people of Alaska and Greenland are known as Eskimos, the people live in Scandinavia are called Lapps and those living in northernmost Canada are called Inuit. They are more or less nomadic people who do not have permanent settlement. They live by hunting, fishing and trapping fur bearing animals. They live in snow house called an Igloo. In summer, they live in tent made by the skin of seal. They hunt seals, polar bears, walruses and whales. The reindeer and polar dogs are used as a means of transport. But, now the life of the people of cold/tundra region is being modernized. Governments of their related areas have provided modern facilities to these people.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-5 Alpine Climate or High Mountainous Climate

Unit-6 Lesson – 5

Alpine Climate or High Mountainous Climate

A.  Short Answer Questions 

1.  Mention the regions of Alpine climate?

Ans:- The climate found in high mountain is called Alpine climate. It is found in high mountain all over the world above the tree line. The climate above this line is unfavorable for trees to grow. The Himalayas, the Tibetan, plateau, The Rocky mountains, the Appalachian mountains, the Atlas mountain, the Andes mountain are the regions of Alpine climate

2.  Explain the economic activities and lifestyle of people in Alpine climate.

Ans:- Alpine climate is not suitable for agricultural crops, Buck wheat, millet, potato, barley, etc. are grown in areas. There is very less density of population. The lifestyle is very difficulty due to less development of infrastructure. Cattle rearing, collection of medicinal herbs, tourism are the major occupation of people. People make thatched houses using wood to live. They wear thick furry cloths to protect their body from extreme cold.

B.  Long Answer Question

1.  What is meant by alpine climate? Describe it in terms of climatic region, climatic characteristics, natural vegetation, animals, and lifestyle of people. 

Ans:- The climate found in high mountain is called Alpine climate. This climate is found in high mountain all over the world above tree line. The climate above this line is unfavorable for trees to grow. The Himalayas, the Tibetan Plateau, the Rocky, the Atlas, the appalachian, the Andes mountains are the region of Alpine climate. The is cold and dry throughout the years. It is not possible to grow any tree there because of severe cold and scanty rainfall. Most of the lands are covered by snow. Natural vegetations like: wild potato, Bristle cone, moss champion and animals like Mt. goat, snow leopard, yak, etc. are found in this climate. There is very thin density of population. Due to lack of infrastructure and development, life is very difficult. Cattle rearing, tourism, collecting medicinal herbs are major occupations of the people. People make thatched houses using wood to live. They wear thick furry cloths tobprotect their body from extreme cold.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-6 Climate, Vegetation and Animals in the World

Unit-6 Lesson – 6

Climate, Vegetation and Animals in the World

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  Write the differences between evergreen forest and deciduous forest.

Ans:- The difference between evergreen forest and deciduous forest are as follows:

S.N.Evergreen forestDeciduous forest
1.This forest is found in the areas with wet and hot climate with plenty of rainfall.This forest is found in the areas with hotsummer and cold winter with moderaterainfall.
2.Vegetations which are evergreen umbrella shaped, big with less branches are found here.The vegetations bear leaves in summerand shed leaves in winter.
3.The vegetations have less branches and are very tall and have hard wood.The vegetations have scattered branches and are short in size.
4.Tuber, sal, rosewood, Teak are the species of plants.Oak, maple,birch are the species of trees.

2.  Coniferous forest has a great economic importance.” Write with examples. 

Ans:- Coniferous forest has great economic importance due to the following reasons:

i)  Coniferous forest has soft wooded trees which can be used for making furniture. The furnitures made from such trees seems very attractive and important from business point of view.

ii)  The leaves, bark, etc. can be used as raw materials for paper and pulp industry.

iii)  As this types of forest has soft wood, it can be used for match stick industry.

iv)  Tourism industry also can be developed in coniferous forest region due to its natural scene and scenery.

3.  “All the three types of forest are found in Nepal.” Justify the statement with the name of the vegetations found there.

Ans:- All the three types of forests are found in Nepal because of climatic and geographical variation. It can be justified as follows:

Terai region is located in low altitude so it is very hot and rainfall occurs through out the year in general. It has sub-tropical evergreen typé of forest. They are hard wooded, tall and branchless vegetation. Sal, Teak, Tuber, Mahogany are the main species of trees. Similarly in hilly region, moderate climate is found. It is hot in summer and cold in winter with moderate rainfall about 100 cm annually. In this region, the vegetation bear leaves in summer and shed leaves in winter. Oak, Lapsi, Chilaune, etc are the vegetation of this region.

Finally, Himalayan region is very cold and remains frozen most of the time. The rainfall is very scanty or less than 50 cm. Due to cold climate, coniferous vegetation like pine, spruce, fir are found here.

4.  With reference to various natural vegetation zone and climatic zone, describe how climate has controlled the features of vegetation.


“Natural vegetation is the product of the climate.” Explain the statement with suitable examples.

Ans:- Climate has direct influence on natural vegetation. The growth and development of vegetation depends upon climatic features like temperature, rainfall, moisture, etc. Thus, particular vegetation grows in a particular climate. An area having high temperature and rainfall around equator has dense tropical Rainforest. But as rainfall decrease, we find vast grassland or barren desert with some thorny bushes. Similarly, as temperature decreases we find cone shaped trees like pine, fir, etc. Further decreased in temperature result in occurrence of mosses and lichen or no vegetation at all. So, we can not grow coconut in Solukhumbu, nor we can grow rhododendron in Terai.

5.  The characteristics of vegetation differ with difference in climatic features. What does plant do to adopt with the climate? Write with examples. 


The features of vegetation change according to the change of nature of climate. How do plants adopt themselves according to the climate? Write with examples.

Ans:- Different types of vegetations are found in different types of climate. Vegetation must struggle with climate or nature to survive. The successful one survives as the fittest and failures disappeared. Thus for the sake of survival, vegetation modify their leaves, roots, timber, trunk, etc to associate themselves with a particular climate. For example, most of the plants in desert have long roots which go deep down to the earth surface in search of water and waxy leaves to protect the moisture from evaporation. Similarly, the trees in Savanna region has umbrella shaped to protect them from strong wind. The trees in cold region are cone shaped to protect them from snow.

6.  Present the name of any four types of natural vegetations with their characteristics according to the climatic nature.


S.N.Name of Natural VegetationsCharacteristics
1.Equatorial Evergreen VegetationAlways evergreen due to hot and wet climate.Rich in biodiversity.Tall trees with hard wood and broad leaves.
2.Tropical Desert VegetationVery rare natural vegetation.Xerophytic plants, thorny scrubs and stunned bushes along with long roots, thorny leaves and thick fleshy stem.
3.Mediterranean evergreen vegetationShort but evergreen vegetation.Plants with long roots, small and only leaves, and thick bark which can survive and are evergreen in dry summers.
4.Tundra vegetationPine trees which can adopt very cold climate.Evergreen trees with coniferous shape, soft wood and needle shaped leaves.

B.  Long Answer Question.

1.  Complete the following table.


Types of forestClimateVegetationsAnimals found there
Evergreen ForestIt is hot and wet all over the year. Rainfall takes place more than 200cm annually.Vegetations are evergreen, umbrellashaped, big and with less branches andhard wood. Tuber, Sal, Rosewood, BTeak, Mahogany, and Ebony are the major vegetations.Large animal like elephant, tiger, ryhinocerus, bear, python, crocodile, peacock,crane and different types of snake are found.
Deciduous ForestSummer is hot-wet and winter is cold-dry in this region. Annual rainfall is about 100cm.The vegetations bear leaves in summerand shed leaves in winter. Oak, Maple,Birch, etc are the major Vegetations.Animals like monkey,jackal, leopard and birds like sparrow,crane, Crow, starlings are found.
Coniferous ForestThe climate is cold and annual average rainfall is 50cm.Evergreen and cone shape Vegetations are found. Taiga forest is an example of this type of Vegetations.  Here pine, fir and sypruce are major Vegetations found here.Animals like snow leopard, himalayan bear and different types of birds are found.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-7 Effects on Lifestyle from Climate and Topographic Diversity

Unit-6 Lesson – 7 

Effects on Lifestyle from Climate and Topographic Diversity

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  How are Red Indians and Pygmies different than Inuit? Show the difference on the basis of their lifestyle and place of residence.

Ans:- Following are the difference on the basis of the lifestyle and place of residence in between Red Indians and Pygmies than Inuits:

Red Indians and Pygmies

i)  They are the inhabitants of equatorial region and live primitive life.

ii)  They lead nomadic life by hunting and gathering.

iii)  They don’t use clothes due to extreme hot weather.

iv)  They live in hut made of leaves and twigs of trees.

v)  They have dark complexion and can bear heat.


i)  They are the inhabitants of northern polar region.

ii)  They hunt animals with traditional domestic weapons.

iii)  They wear furry and thick clothes due to extreme cold weather.

iv)  They live in the house made of ice block (Igloo) and tent made of skin of seal.

v)  They have white complexion and can bear cold.

2.  Why is the lifestyle of mountain, hilly and terai region different with each other? Clarify. 

And:- The lifestyle of mountain, hilly and terai region is different with each other due to difference in geographical structure and altitude. Mountain region is located in high altitude. It is cold through out the year. Due to cold climate, the people are active, energetic and courageous. They wear thick and warm clothes. They live in warm house and use heat producing food. In hilly region, the climate is mild and monsoon type. The people grow crops, vegetables and fruits according to climatic condition. The people are also engaged in trade, business and arts. They use foods and clothes according to seasons. In terai region, generally the climate is hot through out the year. Due to hot climate, the people are comparatively lazy, less active and feel sleepy. They wear light thin clothes and use light and cold drinks.

3.  “The countries located in cold and temperate climate are advanced in term of development”. Why? And how?

Ans:- The countries located in cold and temperate climate are advanced in term of development because:

i)  There is cold and pleasant climate all over the year which makes them a hard working, courageous and daring person.

ii)  These regions are rich in minerals which is explored and supplied in world market.

iii)  They use modern technology, machine and machineries in agriculture which has increased productivity and made them prosperous.

iv)  Tourism and animal husbandry have developed well and are benefitted a lot.

v)  This type of climate is mostly located in coastal region so the sea trade has been developed well.

B.  Long answer Question.

1.  “Religion and culture are also affected by the climate and topographic diversity.” Justify this statement by giving the examples of religion and culture practiced in your locality.

Ans:- Religion and culture are also affected by climate and topographical diversity. We can justify it with the help of religion and culture practiced in my locality. Hindus people meditate in forest and worship various natural plants. They live mostly in hills and almost male wear ‘Dhaka Topi’ and female wears red clothes They smear the house with red mud as there is availability of red soil. Buddhists live in high altitude of mountain. They wear furry cap covering ear, wear over coat, Docha of wool and shoes. They can live in cold climate and are well adjusted there. Similarly, Muslim people live in hot climate. They wear loose and light clothes to save body from extreme hot sun rays. They keep beard to save face skin from the heat. They are positive with moon God not with sun because the heat from the sun irritates them but the moon provides them coolness.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-8 North America: Geographical and Natural Environment

Unit-6 Lesson – 8

North America: Geographical and Natural Environment

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  What is Prairies? What are its uses?

And:- The extensive temperate grassland of North America is called prairies. Its uses are:

i)  Agricultural production due to plain land, fertile soil and availability of irrigation.

ii)  Industries can’ be established as there is the production of crops and rear animals.

iii)  Animal rearing can be carried out as it is the grassland with nutritious grass.

2.  Why is the forest extended in the northern region considered as an important natural resource? Give reasons. 

Ans:- The forest extended in the northern region is considered as an important natural resource because this region is the area of coniferous forest which is important in commercial poirit of view. The leaves, bark, etc. of the tree can be used for making paper and pulp. The soft wooded trees also can be used to run furniture industry, match stick industry, etc. Similarly, this region is naturally beautiful which helps to promote tourism industry.

3.  Rocky mountain range is advanced in tourism? Mention the reasons.

Ans:- Rocky mountain range is advanced in tourism because of the following reasons:

i)  It has natural beauty due to geographical diversity.

ii)  It is the protected areas where the visitors can view wild animals and plants.

iii)  The scene of volcanic eruption can be seen.

iv)  Here is the facilities of lodging, fooding, or other required facilities for tourists.

v)  Availability of infrastructure for tourism like transportation, communication, ete.

4.  Mention any four Characteristics of Tundra climate.

And:- Following are the four Characteristics of Tundra climate:

i)  Very low temperature.

ii)  Summers are cool and short and they last 2 to 3 months.

iii)  Winters are long and severely cold and they last for 9 to 10 months.

iv)  Very scanty rainfall usually below 25 cm occurs in summer and snowfalls in winter.

5.  Write short note on the topic “Climate of North America”.

And:- North America experiences a variety of climate due to its vast latitudinal extension, varied relief, impact of ocean currents and prevailing winds. It lies mostly in temperate zone. It also includes tropical and tundra climate in south and north. In the higher altitude of Rockies, there is very cold and snowfall occurs. North western part has a mild climate. The central part in prairies has an extreme climate. It is very hot in summer and very cold in winter. To the eastern part of the continent receives rainfall throughout the year. California and Florida receive rainfall only in winter. South east part is under the influence of cyclones and receives rainfall in summer, south-west part of the continent has the desert climate.

6.  What are the three physical regions of North America? Discuss and write their names.

Ans:- The three physical regions of North America are:

i)  The Western Mountain System:- This range extends from Alaska in the north to the Panama in the south, a distance of about 6500 km. It consists of high mountain, deserts and earthquake and volcano prone zone.

ii)  The Central Low Land:– This is also known as Great plains which extends from Hudson Bay in the north to the Gulf of Mexico in the south. This plain is drained by Mississippi and its tributaries. The extensive temperate grassland called prairies lies here.

iii)  Eastern Highlands:- These highlands are old fold mountain. Eastern highlands are lower than western mountain. It is formed by three important highlands- the plateau of Greenland, the Canadian Shield and Appalachian highland. The climate of this highland is very pleasant for human settlement.

7.  North America has diversified climates. Give reasons.

Ans:- NorthAmerica has diversified climates. Because the northernmost part of the continent is extremely cold throughout the year. Western coast of Canada and north western part of USA has a mild climate. The central part of the continent has an extreme climate. It is very hot in summer and very cold in winter. The eastern part of Canada and the areas around St. Lawrence River receives rainfall throughout the year. California and Florida receives rainfall only in winter. The south east part of the USA is under the influence of cyclones and receives rainfall in summer. The southernmost part of the continent is hot and wet throughout the year. South west part of the USA has desert type climate.

8.  Make a list of the countries of North America.


United States of AmericaCubaJamaica
MexicoDominican RepublicPanama
Antigua & barbudaEl SalvadorSaint kitt’s & Nevis
BahamasGrenadaSaint Lucia
Barbados GuatemalaSaint Vincent
Belize HaitiTrinidad and Tobago
Costa RicaHonduras

9.  Which parts of North America are affected by earthquake, volcano, flood and a hurricane?

And:- The following parts of North America are affected by earthquake, volcano, flood and  hurricane:

Earthquake — Western part (Rocky Mt. range)

Volcano — Western part (Rocky Mt. range)

Flood — Southern parts

Hurricane — Eastern parts

Unit:-6 Lesson:-9 North America: Economic Activities and Social Life

Unit-6 Lesson – 9 

North America: Economic Activities and Social Life

A.  Short Answer Questions.

1.  Write a short note on the topic “Social life of North America”.

Ans:- Most of the people of North America are migrated from Europe after the discovery of this land by Christopher Columbus. Before European, it was inhabited by native people called Inuits. America is advance in infrastructure, industry, tourism employment, sea trade, etc. The life of people is rich and prosperous. Several languages like French, English, etc is used by the people. The native people have primitive lifestyle whereas immigrants have advance and prosperous life in America. Most of the people are Christian in America. They celebrate Christmas, New Year, Easter as their festivals. Bible is the holy book and church is the place to pray for Christian people. They are labourious, hard working and techno-friendly.

2.  With the help of Atlas, find the big and dense settlements of North America and write their names.

Ans:-  Big and dense settlement of North America are:

i)  New York

ii)  Ottawa

iii)  Washington DC

iv)  Montreal

v)  Los Angeles

vi)  Mexico city

vii)  San Francisco

viii)  Boston

ix)  Chicago

3.  Make a list of the economic activities of North America.

And:- List of the economic activities of North America are:

i)  Trade of forest products

ii)  Tourism industry

iii)  Agriculture and animal rearing

iv)  Fishing

v)  Use of mineral resources

vi)  Sea trade

vii)  Trade of dairy products.

viii) Vegetables and fruits production

ix)  Trade of machine, machineries and technology

4.  Why is the Per Capita Income of USA and Canada high? Write your logic.

Ans:- The per capita income of USA and Canada is high due to following reasons:

(The answer of this question is similar to the answer of Q.No.3.)

5.  Why is the economic status of North America improved? Write the reasons.

Ans:- North America is rich in both natural and human resources. It has been able to utilize the available resources and means maximally. It has been able to utilize forest resource of northern part for running paper, pulp, furniture and match stick industry, Similarly, tourism is also highly developed. Prairies has high potentiality of commercial agriculture and animal rearing. North America is rich in minerals like Petrol, coal, gas iron, copper, Nickel, zinc, etc. Industries are based on minerals and manufactured goods are exported. North America is also rich in water resources for Producing hydro electricity and fishing. Trade through the sea is highly flourished So, the economic status of North America is improved.

6.  Why are the eastern parts of Canada and the USA more developed than the Western parts? 

Ans:- North America is the continent of diversity in land structure. Every part of this continent is not equally developed. The eastern parts of Canada and the USA more developed than Western parts. Eastern part are well developed in tourism has been supporting to raise economic condition of the people settled here. Eastern part is rich in mineral resources so industry, trade and business is highly developed. This part has very favourable climate for human settlement and carry out several economic activities. Availability of infrastructure of development has contributed for  urbanization. But western part of Canada and USA are formed by complex mountain ranges which are not suitable for human settlement and conduct economic activities. Similarly, western part is greatly effected by natural calamities such as earthquake and volcano.

7.  Canada is famous for forests and fishing industry. Give reasons.

Ans:- Canada is the second largest country in the world. It is naturally engifted and technically and economically advanced. 49% land of Canada is occupied by the coniferous forests due to the geographical location of the country. The government of Canada has made special plan and given priority for the conservation and utilization of the vast forest resources. Canada is also famous for fishing industry. Because of the long sea coast of this country, fishery is well developed. The government has established fishing industry for packing and supplying fish in and outside the country. Fishing is major occupation of Canadian people too.

B.  Long Answer Question

1.  The agriculture is commercial in the USA and Canada. What should we learn from them to make our agriculture commercialized? Write in seven points.

Ans:- The agriculture is commercial in the USA and Canada. From them we have to lean the following measures for commercialization of agriculture:

i)  Farmers should be trained for commercial agriculture and to rear improved species of animals.

ii)  Industries should be established based on locally produced agricultural goods.

iii)  Irrigation facilities should be provided in arable land.

iv)  Farmers should be provided subsidies on improved seeds, fertilizers to increase productivity.

v)  Transportation facilities should be expanded for the export and import of agricultural products.

vi)  Farmers should be encouraged for co-operative farming.

vii)  Import of agricultural goods should be given priority.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-10 South America: Geographical and Natural Environment

Unit-6 Lesson – 10

South America: Geographical and Natural Environment

A.  Short Answer Questions.

1.  Give reasons:

a)  The Amazon valley is very hot and wet throughout the year.

Ans:- The Amazon valley is very hot and wet throughout the year because it lies in equatorial region which receives rainfall everyday and the sun rays falls vertically in this region. The land of Amazon valley has the highest relative humidity.

b)  Amazon River basin has dense forest.

Ans:- Amazon river basin has dense forest due to high temperature, rainfall, fertility of soil which supports the growth of vegetations.

c)  Southern parts of Chile has cool and pleasant climate.

Ans:- Southern part of Chile has cool and pleasant climate due to the influence of sea, ocean currents and wind directions.

d)  The Pampas of Argentina is more favorable than Campos for cattle rearing and wheat farming.

Ans:- The Pampas of Argentina is more favorable than Campos for cattle rearing and wheat farming because the extensive temperative grassland supports for animal rearing as there is availability of abundant grass, and wheat also can be grown-in Pampas due to high productivity of land.

2.  Which is the longest mountain range in the world? How long is it? Which one is the highest peak in the mountain range?

Ans:- Andes is the longest mountain range of the world. It is about 7000 km long. Mt Aconcagua is the highest peak in the mountain range.

3.  What type of climate is found in South America?

Ans:- South America extends in wide range of latitude so that it also experiences a wide range of climates. The areas around Amazon basin have hot and wet climate throughout the year. Andes region has cold climate in high altitude and hot climate in lower altitude. Central part of South America has extreme type of climate. The Coastal area has a mild climate due to the influence of sea, ocean currents and wind directions. The western coastal region which is near Pacific ocean has desert climate. However, most part of the continent has a warm climate throughout the year.

4.  The Amazon basin is covered with rich evergreen equatorial forest also called the Selvas. It has a great economic importance. How should Brazil take advantage from it? Write a letter to your relative living in Brazil.


Ratnanagar-10, Chitwan

2 July, 2017

Dear uncle,

Sweet memories,

I am fine here and hope you are also fine there. Today i am writing this letter to inform you about equatorial rainforest and its importance. Equatorial rainforest lies in northern part of Brazil. This forest is extended in the vast areas of Amazon Basin. It is also called Selves. It is the biggest and densest forest of the world. 90% animals found in the world are found in this forest. The forest is great importance to Brazil. Brazil can earn through the trade of wood. Medicines and cosmetics items can be produced by using the forest. Paper industry, furniture industry, ship building industry can be run well. It also can be the research centre of bio-diversity from which Brazil can earn money. Forest products also can be used for compost manure for agriculture. In this way, Brazil can benefit well by utilizing the equatorial rainforest. Only this much for today.

Your nephew,


5.  Describe the physical division of South America.

Ans:- South America is the fourth largest continent in the world which occupies 12% of the world’s land area. It is located in the western hemisphere. This continent has extreme natural features. Physically, South America is divided into three features.

i)  The Andes region:- It is located in the western part of continent and extended from Venezuela in the north to Tierra del Fuego in the south. It stretches for about 7000 km running parallel to the west coast. Atacama desert, the driest place of the world lies on the western side of the central Andes range. Mt. Aconcagua (6960 m), the highest Mt. peak lies here. In between the mountain ranges lies several plateaus. Lake Titicaca, the largest and world’s highest fresh water navigable lake lies here. Volcano and earthquake is occasional here.

ii)  Central lowland:- It is located between the Andes in the west to the eastern highlands in the east. This region is drained by three large rivers-the Orinico, the Amazon and the Lq Plata (Parana-paraguay and Uruguay) river system. It contains different types plan area like Pampas, Campos, Llanos,etc. This region is well known for agriculture and animal rearing.

iii)  The Eastern Highlands:- It is located in eastern part of the continent, consisting of two highlands; the Guiana Highland and Brazilian Highland. Amazon river Separates these two highlands. This region receives a lot of rainfall and are heavily forested. The longest waterfall in the world, Angel’s fall (979 m) lies in Guiana highland in Venezuela.

6.  Why is South America called “the land of extremes”?

Ans:- South America has. several extreme and unique natural features and phenomena because of the strange characteristics, it is called “the land of extremes”. The unique and extreme features are:

i)  Amazon region  wettest region of the world.

ii)  Angel fall  highest waterfall in the world.

iii)  Amazon forest  biggest rain forest in the world.

iv)  Atacama desert  the driest place in the – world.

v)  Brazil  the richest country in water resource.

vi)  Cape Horn  the windiest place in the world.

vii)  Chile  the longest country in the world.

viii)  Lake Titicaca  the largest fresh water lake in the high altitude.

ix)  Mountain range Andes  the longest mountain range in the world.

7.  Complete the table.

Geographical RegionMajor economic activitiesGeographical reason
South-east plateau of BrazilProduction of coffeeDue to oceanic influences and regular rainfall.
Patagonia region of ArgentinaSheep rearingDue to availability of grasses.
New found land of CanadaFishingDue to availability of plank tons.
Veld in South AfricaWheat productionDue to enough rainfall in winter

Unit:-6 Lesson:-11 South America: Economic Activities and Social Life

Unit-6 Lesson-11

South America: Economic Activities and Social Life

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  About 75% of the total population of Brazil lives in city areas. Write a paragraph comparing this fact with Nepal’s context.

Ans:- About 75% of the total population of Brazil lives in the city areas. In Nepal only 17% of total productions live in the city areas. South east of Brazil is influenced by sea and ocean current so this area has most pleasant climate. Rainfall is regular. Here is the facility of trade, tourism, industry and employment so density of population is high. Similarly, terai region of Nepal too is favourable for settlement because of availability of facilities like trade, employment, industry. It also has fertile and plan land with all sorts of facilities. The northern part of Brazil is not suitable for living so people migrate to other places. Similarly, Nepal as too northern part is mountainous, people migrate to other plain areas.

2.  “The economic activities of South American countries and Nepal are almost similar.” Present examples related to this fact.

Ans:- The economic activities of South American countries and Nepal are almost similar. Both the South American countries and Nepal are very rich in water resource but neither water resource is used for hydroelectricity nor for irrigation. Farmers in both places depend on monsoon rainfall for agriculture. The trend of migration in the both places is very high to town and cities from remote and less facilitated areas. People in South American countries are involved in traditional animal husbandry in hilly parts similar to Nepalese people in mountain region. Tourism is also the source of income in South American countries and Nepal. This justifies that the economic activities of South American countries and Nepal are almost similar.

3.  Write similarities and differences between Yaks found in the mountain region of Nepal and Liamas found in the mountain range of South America.

Ans:- Similarities between Yaks found in Nepal and Llamas found in the Andes Mountain range are:

i)  Both animals are used as breast of burden.

ii)  Both animals have thick fur to prevent cold.

iii)  Both animals are found in mountain region.


Yak has a tall animal having big body, short neck and long horns, whereas llama is a short animal having small body, short neck and almost hornless.

4.  The people living in the central parts of South American countries are migrating to the coastal areas and big cities. This trend has led high population density in the coastal region and lack of manpower in the central region. What impacts may it cause in the future? Prepare a list.

Ans:- The people living in the central parts South American countries are migrating to coastal areas and big cities. This trend has led high population density in the coastal region and lack of manpower in the central region. It may cause the following impacts in the future:

In coastal region,

i)  Destruction of natural environment

ii)  Urbanization increases in unplanned way

iii)  Increasement in pollution

iv)  Increase in social problems and evils

In central region

i)  Wastage of agricultural land

ii)  Lack of human power

iii)  Difficult for public participation in development

iv)  Less utilization of means and researches

5.  Which parts of South America is densely populated and which parts is sparsely populated? Find out and give reasons of it.

Ans:- Population density is very high in southeast coastal reason of South America. Because ten big cities of South America like Rio-de Janeiro, Salvador, Sao Paolo, Buenos Aires, etc. lie in this part. These regions have density of population over 100 persons per sq.km. Pampas of Argentina, certain part of Columbia, Venezuela and central Chile also density populated.

These regions are densely populated because there are more job opportunities, development of industries, trade of commerce, favourable climate for human settlement, agriculture, tourism and cattle rearing.

Extremely low density of population is found in densely forested area of Amazon, desert of Atacama and Patagonia, rugged Andes Mountain and Gran Chaco region. The reasons for having low density of population:

i)  Central Brazil has extreme climate like uncertain rainfall with terrible drought, soil is not fertile.

ii)  No transport facilities, lack of job opportunity, infrastructure of development has not developed.

iii)  North East has unreliable rainfall, hot and terrible storms and flood occurs here.

iv)  Andes have very difficult topography, Atacama has extremely dry climate and Amazon is not suitable for human settlements.

6.  What are the advantages and disadvantages of such urbanization?

Ans :-

Advantages of urbanization:-

i)  Maximum use of resources and development of technology.

ii)  Availability of human resource.

iii)  Development of industries, trade and commerce and more employment opportunities.

Disadvantages of urbanization:-

i)  Over exploitation of resources.

ii)  Increasing in population and crowd.

iii)  Development of selfishness and materialistic life.

7.  Argentina is the largest exporter of beef the world. Give any four reasons.

Ans:- Out of the differences countries of South America, Argentina is one of the developed country. The people in this country are involved in different economic activities. Among the various occupations, animal rearing is very flourished in Pampas region. Following are the reasons that Argentina is the largest exporter of beef in the world.

i)  Animal (cattle) rearing is the primary occupation of the people.

ii)  The extensive grassland Pampas supports for animal rearing profession.

iii)  The government of Argentina has provided necessary facilities and services to the farmers for commercial cattle rearing.

iv)  Industries for meat packing and processing have been established which have helped to export beef.

B.  Long Answer Questions

1.  Discuss the economic activities of South America in four points.

Ans:- South America is the “land of extreme”. The world’s biggest river, longest mountain, biggest rainforest, biggest lake situated in highest altitude, driest place, etc. are the sum of outstanding features of South America. Like is the other continents, people of south America are engaged in various economic activities:-

i)  Agriculture:- Rubber grows in hot and wet areas of Tropical region, coffee in south east part, cacao, sugar cane, banana and pineapple in south east and northern part and which in temperate grassland- pampas and produced in large amount. Beside these, other various food and cash crops are also produced in in different parts of the continent.

ii)  Animal Husbandry:- Large number of cattle cow and sheep grazed in Pampas. Animal husbandry is also developed because of Tropical grassland areas like campas and llanos. Llamas are domesticated in Northern and western highland areas.

iii)  Industries:- Development of agro based and forest- based industries is rapid. Large scale saw mills are established in Amazon Basin. Similarly coffee, leather, milk and meat industries are developed in south-east part of the continent. Multinational companies are also established in the eastern coastal areas.

iv)  Mining:- Iron, copper, tin, gold, uranium, natural oil, etc. are the mineral resources. So, the mining and mineral based industries and economic activities are developed in South America.

2.  Give reasons:


a)  Argentina exports meat and wheat.

– Argentina exports meat and wheat because of the presence of the extensive grassland pampas. It is very suitable for commercial animal rearing and wheat production. The government also provides necessary facilities and services to the farmers for commercial cattle earring and wheat farming.

b)  Brazil is famous for coffee.

– Brazil is famous for coffee because Brazilian highland has favourable land (soil), temperature, rainfall, etc. from coffee production.

c)  Peru is developing as an important fishing centre

– Peru is developing as an important fishing centre because it has long coastline connected to Pacific ocean which enables Peru to run fishing industry.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-12 Africa : Geographical and Natural Environment

Unit-6 Lesson- 12

Africa : Geographical and Natural Environment

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  Mention the major climates found in Africa continent.

Ans:- The mention climate found in Africa are:

i)  Equatorial climate

ii)  Savanna climate

iii)  Tropical desert

iv)  Mediterranean climate

v)  Temperate grassland climate

2.  Why Savanna is called “Zoo of the World” ? Write the reasons.

Ans:- Savanna is called  “Zoo of the world” because:

i)  Varieties of animals and birds are found here.

ii)  It is the home of many herbivorous and carnivorous animals.

iii)  Tourists can view wild animals from very close by riding vehicles.

iv)  About 90% species of the animals found in the world found here.

3.  Why Africa is called the plateau of plateaus?

Ans:- Africa is called “plateau of plateaus” because much of the land is raised well above the sea level , dropping off sharply near the coastline and it has formed many plateaus in Africa.

4.  “As a result of the geographical structure and location, Africa continent experiences extreme climate in most of its parts.” Justify this statement with reasons.

Ans:- As a result of the geographical structure and location, Africa continent experiences extreme climate in most of its parts because:

i)  Equator divides Africa at the center, so it experiences hot and humid climate.

ii)  It is extended in vast area and the land is very far from oceanic influence so in the central parts there is extreme climate.

iii)  Very less rainfall occurs in central parts of Africa.

iv)  Due to less influence of monsoon, there are deserts like Sahara, Kalahari, Namid, etc.

5.  The extensive grassland in the savanna region is an important natural resources of Africa continent. What advantages can Africa continent take from this? Make a list.

Ans:- The extensive grassland in the Savanna region is an important natural resources of Africa continent. Africa continent can take following advantages from this:

i)  African can take advantages of commercial agriculture by providing irrigation facilities.

ii)  Because of hundreds of species of animals and birds, it can be developed as tourism hub.

iii)  Because of availability of abundant grass, commercial cattle rearing is possible.

iv)  Mineral based industries can be run by extracting minerals.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-13 Africa: Economic Activities and Social Life

Unit-6 Lesson-13  

Africa: Economic Activities and Social Life

A.  Short Answer Questions.

1.  “There is a great possibility of tourism development in Africa.” Clarify the statement with examples.

Ans:- Africa continent is very rich in natural resources. But the natural resources are not utilized in full extent. Although, there is a great possibility of tourism development in Africa because of following reasons:

i)  It has diverse geography with variety of climate which has every prospect of tourism.

ii)  Savanna is the main centre of attraction of tourists as it is the home of hundreds of wild animals, birds and natural beauty.

iii)  Many protected area like wild reserve, sanctuaries also attract the tourists.

iv)  There are more than 800 of the races and they have diverse origins with different culture, linguistics, social traits, festivals, etc. have increased the possibility of tourism.

v)  Longest river of the world Nile, centre of civilization Egypt large desert, etc. are also the attraction of tourist.

2.  In the past Africa continent was called “dark continent”. Why was it called so?

Ans:- in the past, Africa continent was called “dark continent” because of following reason.

i)  Due to poverty, disease, starvation, etc.

ii)  As this continent was divorced at last of all.

iii)  The impenetrable Sahara desert in its north.

iv)  African people are deprived of education.

v)  Frequent civil war and terrorism.

vi)  No development of transportation, health, electricity, etc.

3.  Why is the continent of Africa backyard thought it is rich in natural resources? Give reason.

Ans:- the reason for the backwardness of Africa are as follow.

i)  Most of the countries have very low literacy rate. Hence, there is lack of skilled human resources.

ii)  They are not able to utilize their natural resources in scientific way.

iii)  Most of the countries are suffering from Civil war or political instability.

iv)  Most of countries are suffering from famine, poverty, epidemic of AIDS etc.

4.  Some of the countries of Africa such as Egypt, Algeria and Libya Armand developed and richer than rest of the other countries of the continent. Mention the reasons.

Ans:- some of the countries of Africa such as Egypt ,Algeria and Libya are more developed and richer than rest of the other countries of the continent because:-

i)  These countries have good trade relation with the European countries through the Mediterranean Sea.

ii)  These countries are rich in natural resources like gas, petrol etc. and they have utilized them properly.

iii)  People of these countries are influenced by Egyptian on European and Middle East civilization.

iv)  People are literate and there is sufficient skilled human resources.

5.  Mention the economic activities of Africa in Four points.

Ans:- The economic activities of Africa in Four points are given below:-

i)  Majority people of Africa are engaged in farming and animal husbandry. However, it is traditional and subsistence type. There are agricultural estates in few parts in in and South of Africa run by rich people. Coffee, cocao, cotton, banana, etc are produced in large scale in these estates.

ii)  The local people of savanna rear large number of cattle. But , this is not modern, scientific and commercial.

iii)  Diamond, gold, copper, natural oil (petrol) are the major minerals of Africa. So, some people are involved in mining and mineral processing activities particularly in the north, Sahara region and the south of the continent. The northern edge and southern part of Africa are developed for National and International trade centre.

iv)  There are big protected areas like national parks in the east / south- east part of Africa like Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Large numbers of tourist visit these protected areas to explore animal world. Thus, it has become a good source of earning foreign currency.

6.  East African country Kenya has many national parks. Every year millions of foreign tourists visit there but more Kenyan people are still poor. Why?


i)  Millions of foreign tourists visit national parks of Kenya but there is no involvement of kenyan people in tourism industry of Kenya. All tourism businesses are operated by the European settlers.

ii)  The local people of this area are mostly engaged in traditional farming and animal husbandry which yield very low production.

iii)  These local people are prohibited to enter into the jungle or in the national parks. So, they have been facing a big problem of pasture land for their animals.

iv)  Illiteracy, starvation, low productivity, lack of good governance are the common problems in the region. These problems cannot be solved only by the development of tourism.

B.  Long Answer Questions

1.  Africa continent is suffering from various problems like starvation, conflict, drought, war, diseases, illiteracy and poverty. In this context, suggest in ten important activities to be done in order to make Africa a developed, peaceful, beautiful and capable continent.

Ans:- Africa continent is suffering from various problems like starvation, conflict, drought, war, diseases, illiteracy and poverty. Following are the ten important suggestion in order to make Africa developed, peaceful, beautiful and capable continent:

i)  Creating environment for tourism development.

ii)  Maintaining political stability.

iii)  Providing technical and skill developing training.

iv)  Developing infrastructure of development.

v)  Ending civil wars of different countries.

vi)  Carrying out programmes for poverty eradication.

vii)  Controlling terrorism.

viii)  Increasing trade, employment industries by using mineral resource.

ix)  Creating public awareness against diseases for healthy life.

x)  Giving priority on animal rearing by using grassland.

Unit:-6 Lesson:-14 North America, South America, Africa and Nepal

Unit-6 Lesson-14

North America, South America, Africa and Nepal

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  What should Nepal learn from the South America, North America and Africa countries?

Ans:- Nepal should learn from the following things from South America, North America, and Africa:

From South America’

i)  To utilize available water resources.

ii)  To utilize forest resources.

iii)  To rear cattle commercially.

From North America:

i)  To carry out commercial agriculture.

ii)  To develop technology.

iii)  To promote import and export trade.

From African:

i)  To develop tourism.

ii)  To establish national park and wildlife reserves.

iii)  To explore mineral resources.

2.  Mention the regions of Africa, North America and South America having similar physical features with that of Nepal.

Ans:- Among the continents mentioned in the question, Andes mountain range of South America and Rocky mountain of North America has similar physical features with the Himalayan region of Nepal. At the same time, eastern highlands of North America, South America and Drakensberg mountain range of Africa have some similarity with hill region ot Nepal. Central lowland of North America and South America are a bit similar to Terai region of Nepal with respect to the height. The national parks of Western mountain system of North America and national parks of Himalaya region of Nepal have some similarity. Similarly, national parks of Kenya and Tanzania have some similarities with the National Parks of the Terai of Nepal.

3.  How have USA and career adda bean helping Nepal? How is the relationship of Nepal with them? What information do you have regarding the Nepalese people who have settled in those countries doing various professions?

Ans:- USA and Canada have contributed a lot for development of Nepal. These countries have helped Nepal in the field of community health, safe drinking water, women development, hydropower, education and development physical infrastructures etc.

Nepal has a very good relation with USA and Canada. Nepal has established diplomatic relation with them. A big number of Nepalese students have gone to USA to study and work. Canada has been providing scholarship to many Nepalese students. Many Nepalese have received green card in both the countries and running their own business there.

4.  What are the similarities and differences among the Nepalese, American and African people? Discuss and make a list of similarity and difference.



In all these three countries, people belong to various castes, religion tradition, culture and lifestyle.


Tall and whiteBlack and middle sizeSmall height, yellow colour, wheatish complexion
Educated and highly skilledMostly illiterate and unskilledMostly semi-skilled, about 60% are illiterate.

5.  How has the fatal disease like AIDS affected Nepal, the countries of Africa and America?

Ans:- The epidemic AIDS is the most critical problems of Africa at present. Thousands of young men and women are died on this deadly disease leaving countless children to be orphans and to be cared and brought up by their grandparents. Many people of North and South America are also suffering from this disease due to the unsafe sexual intercourse. AIDS is spreading in Nepal as well. Mostly the people of the hill region of Far Western Development Region who go to work in different cities India brought this disease. It is increasing in cities and towns of Nepal due to unsafe prostitutions.

6.  About 75% people of Africa on their living by agriculture where is only 3% people of Canada are engaged in agriculture. Compare the condition of Nepal with those countries and fight out the reasons.

Ans:- about 75% people of Africa earn their living buy agriculture but most of the people are very poor because they follow the primitive way of agriculture. Similarly, about 80% people of Nepal are also engaged in agriculture but they follow subsistence agriculture that is why production is not satisfactory. Whereas only 3% people are engaged in agriculture in Canada but it is the second largest exporter of wheat in the world because Canada used high technology and scientific method ID agriculture. The farmers of Canada are highly educated, used improved seeds, fertilizer, etc. whereas most of the farmers of Nepal and Africa are illiterate and poor so that they cannot invest in agriculture and use improved seeds, fertilizer, etc.

B.  Long Answer Questions

1.  Prairies of North America, Campos and Llanos of South America, Veld and Savanna of Africa and Himalaya kharka are appropriate for cattle rearing. Make a list showing the geographical characteristics of each of them.

Ans:- Prairies of North America, Campos and Llanos of South America, Veld and Savanna of Africa and Himalaya kharka are appropriate for cattle rearing. Following are the characteristics of each of them:

Prairies of North America:

i)  Suitable for agriculture and animal rearing

ii)  Vast extensive grassland

iii)  Temperate grassland

iv)  Warm favourable climate

Campos and Llanos of South America:

i)  Suitable for animal rearing

ii)  Hot climate

iii)  Tropical grassland

iv)  Gently slope land

Veld of America:

i)  Suitable for wild animals

ii) Plain sandy land

iii) Temperate grassland

iv)  Warm climate

Himalayan kharka of Nepal:

i)  Suitable for animal rearing

ii)  Less rainfall and cold climate

iii)  Extensive Himalaya plains

iv)  Cool temperate grassland

2.  Make a table and show the geographical similarities among Nepal, North America, South America and Africa.


FactsNepalNorth AmericaSouth AmericaAfricaFeatures
Mountain rangesHimalaya mountain rangeRocky mountain rangeAndes mountain rangeDrakensberg and Atlas mountain rangesYoung fold mountains
Mountain peaksMt. Everest (8,848), highest in the worldMt.Mckinley(6,194m), highest in North AmericaMt.Aconcagua(6,960m), highest in South AmericaMt. Kilimanjaro(5,895m), highest in Africa and highest volcanic mountain peak in the worldHighest
GrasslandsHimalaya kharkasPrairiesCampos and LlanosVeld and SavannaUsed for cattle rearing
RiversKoshi, Gandaki and KarnaliSt. Lawrence, Mississippi, Missouriand ColoradoAmazon, Parana, Paraguay and OrinocoNile, Congo, Zambezi and NigerPermanent and with high volume of water
ClimateClimatic diversity due to altitudinal variationClimatic diversity due to latitudinal extensionClimatic diversity due to latitudinal extensionClimatic diversity due to latitudinal extensionClimatic diversity due to latitudinal extension

Unit:-6 Lesson:-15 Natural Disasters: Earthquake and Tsunami

Unit-6 Lesson-15

Natural Disasters: Earthquake and Tsunami

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  What is an earthquake? Can it be prevented? Explain.

Ans:- Any sudden movement of earth’s crust due to natural cause which produces a shaking or trembling is known as earthquake. No, it cannot be prevented because it is natural disaster and inevitable. The solid crust of the earth is divided into several plates known as continental plates. They are floating on molten mass called the mantle. The huge plates move towards each other and something away from each other due two tectonic forces developed deep inside the surface of the earth. Search movement causes the plates to bend, fracture and overlap which results earthquake. Sometimes earthquake also occurs due to volcanic eruption. The above-mentioned phenomenon are not in the grip of human hand also so, earthquake cannot be prevented.

2.  Write the differences between earthquake and tsunami.

Ans:- The difference between earthquake and tsunami are as follows:-

1.A sudden movement of earth’s crossed due two natural force is called earthquake.The waves caused by submarine earthquake are called tsunami.
2.It causes vertical and horizontal quack.It moves in cyclonic motion.
3.It is caused it to the movement of tectonic plates to either side.It is caused due to fluctuations off air pressure and solar heat.
4.It occurs in in volcanic prone zone and near the area with high movement of plates.It occurs in the coastal region of sea near land.

3.  Though the earthquake cannot be prevented, its loss can be minimized. How?

Ans:- Though the earthquake cannot be prevented, its loss can be minimized in the following ways:

i)  Physical structures should be e constructed with disaster resistant technology.

ii)  Precautions and preparation should be adopted before occurrence disaster.

iii)  There should be easy access of information to be safe from possible disaster.

iv)  Essential material should be kept in ready position for the disastrous time.

v)  Be aware of aftershock that follows earthquake.

4.  Look at the map of earthquake zone in the atlas and write the region and the the countries which are prone to earthquake.

Ans:- the earthquake zones of the worlds are:

i)  The precipice ocean

ii)  The rocky mountain range

iii)  Andes mountain range

iv)  East Asia

v)  Hindu Kush and Suleiman range

vi)  Iran, Iraq and Turkey

vii)  Alps mountain range of Europe

5.  Differentiate between:


i)  Hypocenter and epicenter

The point in the interior part of the earth where the first vibration originates is called hypocenter.Epicenter is the place on the earth’s surface where the vibration of the earthquake comes first from the hypocenter.

ii)  Earthquake and volcano

Any sudden movement of a portion of the earth’s crust due to to a natural cause which produces a shaking or trembling is known as an earthquake. During the time of earthquake the earth’s crossed shakes vertically called vertical quack and the horizontal shake is called horizontal quack.Volcano is the explosion of lava from the inner part of the earth. It occurs from the week surface of the earth which cannot beware the pressure of hot liquid of the inner part of the earth.

6.  What is the cause of an earthquake?

Ans:- the solid crust of the earth which has developed a crack or fracture and divided into several plates called continental plates. These continental plates are floating on the liquid substances called mantle. Some of these plates have oceans and continents of them. Something this huge plates move towards each other and sometimes apart. Such a movements cause the plates to bend, fracture and overlap. Hence, it causes an earthquake.

7.  What are the effects of earthquake?

Ans:- the effects of earthquake are as follows:

i)  Houses, buildings and bridge collapse talking the lives of many people.

ii)   Soon after the earthquake the epidemics of disease may sprees.

iii)  People die hunger and starvation.

iv)  A great change occurs on the surface of the earth due to rise and sink of the landforms.

v)  Natural calamities like the floods, landslides, storms and tidal waves (tsunami) occur which cause lots of damage.

8.  What safety measures should be taken to be safe and secure during an earthquake?

Ans:- The following measures should be taken during the earthquake.

i)  One should not run and panic during the time of an earthquake.

ii)  Secured yourself under the table.

iii)  Come out of the house after the intensity of an earthquake become less.

iv)  Keep the household items in in such a place that they do not cause any accident during the time of an earthquake.

v)  Beware of aftershock that follows earthquake.

vi)  Reports to the government and the non-government organization for relief.

B.  Long Answer Questions.

1.  What should be done before,during and after the earthquake for safety and alertness? Discuss and write any three measures for each.

Ans:- Earthquake cannot be prevented. It may occur anytime and anywhere. So, everyone should be allowed and adopt the safety measures. Following measures should be adopted before, during and after earthquake to be safe:


i)  Construction of earthquake resistant building

ii)  Necessary first aid kits should be kept in accessible place

iii) Practice earthquake safety drill


i)  Should not run and panic during earthquake

ii)  Should secure under the table, keeping head covered

iii)  Should not stay on the electric pole, tall trees and buildings


i)  Came out of the house slowly as the intensity of an earthquake become less

ii)  Be aware of aftershock that follows earthquake

iii)  Gas and electric switch should be off

iv)  Reports to the government and non-government organization for relief

2.  Fill the following table with the causes and effects of earthquake and tsunami.


Causes of earthquakeEffects of earthquakeCauses of TsunamiEffects of Tsunami
Movement of tectonic platesVolcanic eruptionLoss of life and propertyMovement of earth to either sideIt may result in large cracks and fissures on the groundDue to fluctuation of solar heat and air pressure on land and seaCauses loss and damage of physical structureDestroys the weak huts and buildings of coastal regionDestroys the plants, agricultural crops and other phenomena near sit and ocean

Unit:-6 Lesson:-16 Globe Map and Map Technology

Unit-6 Lesson-16

Globe Map and Map Technology

A.  Short Answer Questions

1.  Give short introduction to Cartography and Cartography.

Ans:- A person engaged in the production of map is cartographer, and the science, skill or art of making map is Cartography.

2.  Write the methods of making maps.

Ans:- The methods of making map are as follows:

i)  Free hand map

ii)  Carbon method

iii)  Tracing method

iv)  Photography method

v)  Square method

vi)  GIS method

vii)  Template method

3.  How is carbon method different than tracing method?

Ans:- Following are the differences between carbon method and tracing method:

S.N.Carbon methodTracing method
1.It is a method of copying map with the help of carbon paper.It is method of making map using a table of glass.
2.A blank sheet of paper is placed at the bottom then carbon in the middle and map on the top.The original map is stuck on the inner surface and a blank sheet is kept on the outer surface of the glass table.
3.Pencil is used to overwrite on the top map in the size of map and it is printed.Enough light is sent from below off the table and image of original map is clearly seen and it is prepared.
4.It is the easiest method of map making.It is a difficult method as it needs light and glass.

4.  Why photocopy method is called the zero ability method? Present your logic.

Ans:- Photocopy method is called zero ability method because of following reasons:

i)  It does not need any creativity and skill.

ii)  Lack of mapmaking skill as machine is used for it.

iii)  There is passive role of person baking map.

iv)  Readymade map is copied with the help of machine.

5.  What kind of information can GPS provide?

Ans:- GPS map can provide the information about:

i)  Latitude and longitude

ii)  Diversity of land according to altitude

iii)  Shape and size of the earth as the map is taken by satellites

iv)  The area of land, forest and water of the earth

6.  What are the differences between GIS and GPS maps?

Ans:- The differences between GIS and GPS maps are given below:

i.A connection is established with earth- orbiting satellites from computer through electronic wave with the help of a special software.With the help of earth- orbiting satellites a special machine takes direct photo of the position of the land and map is prepared.
ii.It is useful to find out facts of the earth.It is useful to get information about geographical structures.

7.  “Internet has helped in map works.” Justify this statement.

Ans:- ” Internet has helped in map works.” It can be justify by following points:

i)  The maps drawn by GIS and GPS can be studied with the help of internet.

ii)  We can learn the method of making map.

iii)  We can search the map which we need in internet.

iv)  We can study the map of any part of the world with the help of internet.

v)  We can find out the solution regarding the conflict and confusion of map with the help of internet.

8.  What is Thematic Maps? What are the elements of map? Mention.

Ans:- The maps which express what people want to know are called thematic maps. Thematic maps include any information about any subjects like landforms, countries, population, type of environment, climate, means of communication, transport, trade, industry etc. The elements of map are scale, title, symbols, direction symbols, etc.

9.  What is a scale?

Ans:- Scale is the ratio of distance on the paper to the actual distance on the ground.

10.  What does green color in physical map indicate?

Ans:- Green color in physical map indicates plain low land.

11.  State any two uses of Globe.

Ans:- Any two uses of globe are:

i)  It helps to study of the physical and political features of the earth.

ii)  It helps to learn the rotation of the earth.

12.  What indicates the following symbols?


i)  Zigzag lines in topographical map

–  To show the connection of the place of the same elevation.

ii)  Green color in physical map

–  To show the elevated lowland.

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