Class 8 English Book solution Nepal Unit 16 Exercise A History of Pens complete exercises is provided in this post. Here you can download pdf of chapters for offline viewing too. You don’t have to face the hassle of finding right course curriculum. For Download link Subscribe blog and fb page.
The History of Pens
A. Find the different types of pens mentioned in the text and write their details.
a. Reed Pen- When humans developed papyrus- Egyptians
b. Quill Pen-Spanish
c. Fountain Pen- 1827- Petrache Poenaru
d. Ballpoint Pen-1943- László Bíró and György Bíró
B. Matching the words with their meanings:
a. hollow – iii. having a hole or empty space inside
b. discard – vii. to get rid of something that you no longer want or need
c. shaft – v. the long narrow part of an arrow, hammer, etc.
d. sturdy – i. strong and not easily damaged
e. patent – ii. to obtain a right for an invention or a process
f. smudge – viii. to make a dirty mark on a surface
g. evolution – iv. the slow steady development of something
h. advent – vi. the coming of an important event, person, invention, etc.
C. Answer these questions.
Reed pens were made by hollowing out a piece of reed and sharpening one end to a point.
Quill pens were made from the feathers of geese, swans, or turkeys.
Quill pens allowed for smoother and faster writing than reed pens, and they could be used to write in both capital and lowercase letters.
Steel-point pens were different from quils pens as they were cheaper and sturdier. As writing became smoother and faster.
The variations of the fountain pen include the use of replaceable and refillable ink cartridges, as well as the use of materials such as plastic, metal, and wood.
László Bíró, a Hungarian journalist, designed the first commercial ballpoint pen in 1938.
Biro pens, also known as ballpoint pens, were the first widely successful type of pens. They were a significant advancement in pen technology because they were very durable, convenient to use, and could write on various surfaces like cardboard and wood. They even worked underwater and at high altitudes.
I think the use of pens will decline in the days to come. This is because there are a number of new technologies that are replacing pens, such as tablets and smartphones. These devices allow people to write and draw electronically, which is often more convenient and efficient than using a pen.
Timeline of the Development of Pens
3000 BC: The first pens are invented in Egypt. These pens are made from reed and are used to write on papyrus.
1400 AD: Quill pens are invented in Europe.
These pens are made from the feathers of geese, swans, or turkeys.
1700 AD: Steel-point pens are invented. These pens are made of a single piece of metal and are stronger and more durable than quill pens.
1827: The fountain pen is invented. This pen has an ink reservoir and does not need to be dipped in ink regularly.
1884: The Waterman fountain pen is patented. This pen has a three-channel ink feed that ensures a smooth flow of ink.
1938: The ballpoint pen is invented. This pen has a small ball at the tip that rolls ink onto the paper.
1945: The first commercial ballpoint pens are sold.
1960s: The ballpoint pen becomes the most popular type of pen in the world.
2023: Pens are still an important tool for many people but they are being increasingly replaced by technology.
Write a couple of paragraphs about one of the historical events you know.
One of the significant historical events that left an indelible mark on the world is the French Revolution, which unfolded between 1789 and 1799. The French Revolution was a period of profound social and political upheaval in France, ultimately leading to the downfall of the monarchy and the rise of radical political ideologies. Sparked by widespread dissatisfaction with the oppressive monarchy, social inequality, and economic hardships, the revolution was characterized by fervent calls for liberty, equality, and fraternity.
The revolution began with the storming of the Bastille, a symbol of royal authority, on July 14, 1789. This act of defiance marked the initial stage of a broader movement that aimed to dismantle the feudal system and establish a more egalitarian society. Over the course of the revolution, France witnessed sweeping changes, including the adoption of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the execution of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette, and the Reign of Terror led by Maximilien Robespierre.
The French Revolution had a profound impact not only in France but also on the global stage. It inspired other nations to question the legitimacy of monarchy and feudal systems and paved the way for the spread of revolutionary ideals and nationalism. The revolution’s legacy is complex, as it witnessed both remarkable achievements in terms of challenging oppressive systems and human rights advancements, as well as significant violence and political instability. Nevertheless, the French Revolution remains a landmark event that reshaped the course of history and continues to be studied and debated by scholars and enthusiasts alike.