Unit-5 Civic Awareness Social Studies Class 10 Guide Book is the only resource you need for the overall success in eam. here the notes are below.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-1 Legislation
A. Short answer questions:-
1. Why the legislature is called law making organ of the state? How does it make the law.
Ans:- Legislature is called the law making organ of the state because it formulates the law for the country which controls overall activities of the country.
As we all know that Nepal is a federal state. Here the laws are made by legislature members through Bills. First of all the bills are presented in the parliament among its members where laws are made. Then the specific laws are written on the bills by its members. Then these laws are verified by the chairman of the parliament. Then the bills are sent to each Member of Parliament for finding out the majority on laws which are passed. If laws get two third majority or its member then the law is passed. Then this passed law is sent to the President to verified it. Once it is verified by president of country then the laws is made. In this way, the law of country is made.
2. What does federal parliament mean in our country? Examine the qualification for the member of federal parliament?
Ans:- The parliament which consists of house of representative and national assembly is called federal parliament.
The qualification for the member of federal parliament are listed below:
i) Should be a citizen of Nepal.
ii) Not have been convicted of a criminal case.
iii) Not being disqualified by any federal law.
iv) Not holding an office of profit.
3. Make a list of functions of legislature.
Ans:- The functions of legislature are listed below:
i) To formulate the laws of the country.
ii) To select the prime minister and form the government.
iii) To control the economic activities.
iv) To revise the Constitution if needed.
4. Write the name of present speaker and deputy speaker of the House of Representatives? How are they elected? Also write their roles in the house of representative.
Ans:- Krishna Bahadur Mehra is the present speaker and shiv Maya Tumbahamphe is the deputy speaker of the house of representatives. They are elected by doing election among the members of the house of representative.
Their role in house of representative is mentioned below:
i) To run the session of the parliament.
ii) To postponed and adjunct session of parliament.
iii) To allocate the time for the members of parliament to express their view.
iv) To certify the Bill passed by the majority member of parliament.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-2 Executive
Unit-5 Lesson -2
A Short answer questions
1. Write the differences between the federal executive and provincial executive.
Ans:- the differences between federal executive and provincial service executive are listed below:
|Federal executive||Provincial executive|
|The only one federal government is federal executive.||The executive of each province is provincial executive.|
|President, vice president and council of minister remains under it.||The head of the province or chief minister and other minister remain under it.|
|It supports for the provincial activities and gives necessary direction.||It gives directions to rural municipality and municipality and supports for their functions.|
|Central executive power is vested in federal executive.||Executive power of provinces vested in provincial executive.|
2. Mention the function of executive.
Ans:- The functions of executive are as follows:
i) It implement the laws passed by legislative.
ii) It performs all the administrative functions.
iii) It raises taxes and spins them according to the approval of legislature.
iv) It prepares ordinances and issues when the session of parliament is not going on.
v) It prepares the annual budget and carries out after passed by legislature.
3. How can you help the government personally? Write in points.
Ans:- I can help the government personally in the following ways:
i) By paying tax on time.
ii) By taking part in different development works.
iii) By providing constructive suggestions regarding various subjects and national issues.
iv) By following the laws, rules and regulation of the country.
v) By participating in various elections.
4. What plan would you make to develop Nepal if you became the prime minister?
Ans:- If I become the prime minister of Nepal, I would make the following plan:
i) Modernization agriculture by introducing various technologies.
ii) Create employment opportunity by developing industries.
iii) Make the provision to provide the education and skills training in rural areas of Nepal in free of cost.
iv) Conduct many small and medium hydro power projects and encourage foreign investment for big hydropower projects.
v) Link all parts of the country by roadways through collective efforts of government and people’s participation.
B. Long answer questions
1. Explain the composition of the council of ministers in Nepal? And also mention its importance.
Ans:- According to the constitution of Nepal 2072, the leader of a parliamentary party that commands majority in house of representatives is appointed as the prime minister by the president and the council of minister is constituted under his or her chairpersonship at Centre. If there is not a clear majority of any party, the president appoints as prime minister of the member of House of Representatives who can have the maturity with the support of two or more political parties represented in the House of Representatives. If it is not possible to make the appointment of the prime minister within 30 days or final result of the election or fails to receive vote of confidence of the House of Representatives, the president appoints the leader of the party with the highest number of members in the House of Representatives as the prime minister. This prime minister also should receive the vote of confidence of the house of representative within 30 days of his / her appointment. If the prime minister fails to receive vote of confidence, the president appoints the member as prime minister, who produces bases that he / she may win the vote of confidence of the House of Representatives. Such prime minister also should get vote of confidence of House of Representatives. If not on the recommendation of prime minister, the president dissolves the House of Representatives and fix a date to conduct another election within 6 days.
After the appointment of prime minister on his / her commendation, the president constitutes the council of ministers comprising a maximum of 25 ministers including the prime minister, in accordance with the exclusive principle, from amongst the members of the federal parliament.
Council of ministers exercises the executive power of Nepal. It makes programs, policies and implements the laws formulated by the legislature. It is also responsible for day-to-day administration of country. The responsibilities for issuing general directives, controlling and regulating the Governance of Nepal lies in council of ministers. That’s why, council of ministers is important.
2. Describe four important functions of executive.
Ans:- The importance of executive are as follows:
i) Administrative work:- The Main function of executive is to maintain law and order in the country. It gives various directions and does supervision in implementing laws. It makes proper organization of administrative structure of the government and establishes co-ordination among the various departments. The executive appoints the heads of different constitutional organs, it also appoints the chief of various operations which are under the ownership of the government. In process of implementing law, it can make different announcement, give orders and directions.
ii) Diplomatic work:- Regarding the diplomatic work, the executive make the foreign policy, extend the relation with other countries, make treaties and agreements with any country. It also appoints the ambassador to foreign countries.
iii) Financial works: The financial administration of a country is run by executive. It can impose a new tax and collects them. It can purpose a new tax, increase or decrease it. It can mobilize the amount from state treasure and take loan from other countries and organizations. Every year the finance minister prepares the budget and executes it after passing from the parliament.
iv) Military work:- Generally, the head of executive becomes the supreme commander in chief of Army. Himesh the appointment and dismissal of commander in chief and other high-ranking officers of the Army. The executive has to save the country, declare war and peace.
3. Mention any five similarities and four dissimilarities about the provision of formation of council of ministers between present constitution and interim constitution of Nepal 2063 BS.
Ans:- Five similarities about the provision of formation of council of ministers between the present constitution and interim constitution of Nepal 2063 BS are:
i) Council of ministers is formed from among the members of legislature on parliament.
ii) There is provision of appointing Deputy prime minister, minister, minister of state, assistant minister who is not a member of parliament.
iii) Prime minister along with all the ministers would be accountable to their respective ministry and to the citizen of nation.
iv) There is the provision of dissolving the council of ministers by launching vote of no confidence.
v) Prime minister, deputy prime minister, ministers, ministers of state, assistant minister forms the council of ministers.
Four dissimilarities about the provision of formation of council of ministers between the present constitution and interim constitution of Nepal 2063 BS are:
i) According to present constitution vote of no confidence can’t be launched against the Council of minister for 2 years but no confidence can be launched at any time according to interim constitution.
ii) There is provision of two level of government (Central and provincial) according to present constitution but there was single level of government according to interim constitution.
iii) There is limitation of ministers in the council of minister (only 25) according to present constitution but there was no limitation of ministers according to interim constitution.
iv) President is the head of the country and governor / chief minister is the head of the provinces according to present constitution but there was no provision of federal system in interim constitution.
Uniy:-5, Lesson:-3 Judiciary
A. Short answers questions.
1. What is judiciary? Why it is called a judicial organ of the state?
Ans:- The highest power of the government concerned with providing justice to the innocent and punishment to the criminals.
Judiciary is called judicial body because of following mentioned reasons:
i) It provides equal justice to the citizens using prevailing rules and laws.
ii) It saves the innocent and punishes the offender.
iii) It settles both civil and criminal cases.
iv) It protects the fundamental rights of people.
Hence judiciary is called a judicial organ and we all should follow the decisions given by judiciary.
2. Mention the functions of Supreme Court.
Ans:- The supreme court is the highest court in the judicial system of Nepal. It is also called the court of record because the decisions given by this court are recorded for long time.
The functions of Supreme Court are listed below:
i) To declare that law to be void if it appears to be inconsistent with the constitution.
ii) To issue necessary and appropriate orders and provide appropriate remedies for the enforcement of fundamental rights.
iii) To issue appropriate orders and writs including the writs of habeas Corpus, Mandamus, certiorari, prohibition.
iv) To hear original cases, to hear appeals, to examine decisions referred for confirmation review cases or review its judgment.
In this way Supreme Court plays a very important role to protect the rights of people.
3. How can the judiciary be kept independent and impartial? present any four suggestions.
Ans:- Judiciary is law protection of the government. It protects the people fundamental rights also saves the innocent and punishes the offender. We should make the judiciary in order to hear right decision from judiciary.
The judiciary can be kept independent and impartial by following ways:
i) The political parties should not interfere the works and decision of judiciary.
ii) Executive and legislature should not interpret and interfere the works of judiciary.
iii) By keeping the balance between the three organs of the government.
iv) By increasing the tenure of judges and by making rule according to the law.
v) Separation of judiciary from executive and legislature.
In this way we can make the balance between organs of government and can make judiciary independent.
4. What are the qualification required for chief judge and judges of high court?
Ans:- The qualifications are required for chief judge and judge of high court listed below:
i) Must be a Nepali citizen.
ii) He/she must pass a bachelor in law.
iii) Mast worked as a judge of district court for at least 5 years.
iv) Or, he was practiced as law graduate, senior advocate or advocate for 10 years.
v) Or, has conduct research or taught there on at least for 10 years.
If anyone possess all above mentioned qualification then he or she can become a chief judge or other judges of high court.
B. Long answer questions:-
1. Explain the functions of judiciary.
Ans:-The functions of judiciary are explained below:
i) Judicial function:- The main function of the judiciary is to provide equal justice to the citizens using the prevailing laws of the country. it saves the innocent and punished the it gives verdict on both civil and criminal case.
ii) Interpretation of law:- judiciary impress the law practiced in the country. When the court gives decision on any case, it explains the meaning of spirit of law. Such explanation can be used as the precedent if a similar type of cases filled in the court.
iii) Protection of people’s rights and freedom:- The constitution provides various rights to the citizens. If the rights of people are violated then the court restores their rights. Judiciary is the only organ to protect people’s fundamental right.
iv) Advisory function:- It provides suggestions and advices in critical legal matters. Generally head of the state and head of the government takes advice from judiciary.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-4 Constitutional Bodies
A. Short answers questions.
1. What are the constitutional Bodies? Write the provision of monitoring their functions and annual report submission?
Ans:- Those organs whose powers, functions and duties are described in the constitution are called constitutional organ.
The provision of monitoring their functions and annual report submission are listed below:
i) Constitutional body must be accountable and responsible to the federal parliament.
ii) The committees of the House of Representatives may monitor and evaluate the functioning, including reports of the constitutional bodies.
iii) Every constitutional body should submit an annual report of its functioning to the president and the President shall represent it through the prime minister before the federal parliament.
2. What are the qualifications for the chief and officials of constitutional Bodies?
Ans:- The qualifications for the chiefs and official of constitutional bodies are listed below:
i) Should be a Nepalese citizen.
ii) Having attained the age of 45 years.
iii) Not being member of any political party at the time of appointment.
iv) Being of high moral character.
v) Should hold a masters and bachelors degree of law from recognized university.
3. Mention the major functions of public service commission?
Ans:- The major functions of public service commission are listed below:
i) It conducts an examination for the selection of suitable candidates to be appointed to civil service position.
ii) It works on the promotion, transfer, reward and punishment of civil servants.
iii) It conducts the written examination for the recruitment in the Nepalese Army, Nepal police or armed force or federal government services.
iv) It submits the annual report of its work to the president.
4. Mention the formation process of the commission for the investigation of abuse of authority (CIAA) and also mention its functions.
Ans:- In part 21, of the constitution of Nepal 2072,there is provision for the investigation of abuse of authority of Nepal. It consists of the chief commissioner and four other commissioners. The chief person acts as the chairperson of the CIAA. The president on the recommendation of constitutional council appoints the chief commissioner and commissioner.
The functions of CIAA are mentioned below:
i) It helps to investigate the cases of abuse of misuse of authority by persons holding public posts.
ii) It helps to recommend the concerned authority to carry out investigation regarding corruption to violation of the law in case it falls under the jurisdiction of other bodies.
iii) It also prepares the report to cases of abuse of authority and register in the court of law for punishment and penalty.
iv) It submits the annual report of cases of of abuse of authority to the president which is presented in parliament for discussion.
5. Mention the functions of national human right commission.
Ans:- The functions of national human right commission are listed below:
i) It ensures respect, protection, and promotion and effective implementation of human rights.
ii) It conducts inquiries into the investigation of the violation of the human rights of any person or a group of people.
iii) It works jointly with civil society to enhance awareness of human rights.
iv) It also helps to ensure the rights to those who are deprived of it.
6. Discuss about the dismissal of the chief or officials of constitutional bodies from the post.
Ans:- Any person appointed in the post of chief or officials in the constitutional bodies become vacant in the following cases:
i) If he or she tenders resignation in writing to the president.
ii) It motion of impeachment is passed against him or her.
iii) If he or she passes away.
iv) If he or she attends the age of 65 years.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-5 Other Constitutional Commissions
Other Constitutional Commissions
A. Short answer questions
1. Discuss the unavoidability of National women commission in the context of Nepal.
Ans:- The constitution of Nepal 2072 has made the provision of national women commission, consisting of a chairperson and four other members. In the context of Nepal, National women commission is earned avoidable because of following reasons:-
i) To activate the open economic, political and social sectors, taking them out of the four walls of the house.
ii) To protect thousands of women from girls trafficking.
iv) To save the innocent woman and girls from the evils like Deuki, Jhumma, Ghumto, Dowry,Chaupadi etc.
v) To make the woman able to raise voice against domestic violence like battering, MS treatment, coercion, threatening, sexual exploitation, gender discrimination etc.
vi) For proportional and inclusive participation of women in the mainstream of development.
2. How can the national Dalit commission establish the issues of Dalits? Discuss.
Ans:- Dalit are the people who have been exploited, dominated, pressurized and deprived of any right and opportunity on the basis of caste since long ago. To empower such people, the constitution of Nepal 2072 has made the provision of national Dalit commission in article 255. Dalit commission should play the important role to establish the agenda of Dalits. This commission should be able to raise public awareness regarding the rights and facilities provided by the state. It has to supervise weather Dalits are fearlessly utilizing the rights and privilege provided by the state or not. It can recommend for actions to those who have violated the rights of the Dalits. Volunteers should be deployed in every village to supervise the conditions of Dalits. It also should recommend the government to ensure proportional participation, to prepare policies and programs to Dalits and effective implementation of it.
3. Mention the importance of National inclusion Commission in the context of Nepal.
Ans:- National Inclusion Commission has been given the right to work for protection of rights and interests of the communities, including khas Arya, pichhada class, person with disabilities, senior citizen labours, peasant, minorities and marginalized community, backward class, people of karnali and the indigent class. There are several discrimination existing on the basis of caste, creed, economic status, jobs etc. Senior citizens and disabled are biased neglected in the society in various aspects. There is very painful situation in karnali region and minorities. The national inclusive Commission should act as bridge to end such inequalities. It has to make the reports for the protection, empowerment and development of all communities, class and region. It has to make suggestions to the GON about the policies and programs to be pursued for the development and prosperity of the karnali and backward regions. This Commission also has to monitor the status of implementation of rights and interests guaranteed for minority and marginalized communities and make recommendations for revision upon necessary review on the basis of periodic national census and Human development index. With the efforts of this Commission every citizens will move in ahead in social, economic and political field in balanced way. So, National inclusion commission is very important in the context of Nepal.
B. Long answer questions.
1. How can the indigenous Nationalities, Madhesi, Tharu and Muslim commissions function keeping in mind the rights and interest of these communities? Mention.
Ans:- The indigenous Nationalities, Madhesi, Tharu and Muslim commissions can do the following function of the right and interest of these communities:-
i) This commission can alert the government not to discriminate while providing rights, facilities and opportunities to indigenous Nationalities, Madhesi, Tharu and Muslim communities.
ii) If the people of these communities felt difficulties to receive rights and benefits, these commissions should support to receive rights and benefits.
iii) These commissions can raise awareness on the privileges provided by the government.
iv) To raise the voice against the injustice that may happen to the above mentioned groups.
v) These Commissions should pressurize the government to make plans, policies and programs to related the targeted groups.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-6 Political party
A. Short answer questions:-
1. What is political party? Make a list of any six political party.
Ans:- A group of person who are organized to acquire and exercise the political power is called political party. Political party are established to conduct the different works of national welfare. Political party plays an important role in making democracy more powerful. In Nepal under part 29 there is provision for political party.
Any 6 political party of Nepal are mentioned below:
i) Communist party of Nepal
ii) Nepali Congress
iii) Rashtriya Janata Party Nepal
iv) Rastriya Prajatantra Party
v) Sanghiya Samajwadi Forum Nepal
vi) Tourist Janmorcha Party
vii) Nepal Sadbhavna Party
2. The role of political parties was important in the Restoration of multiparty democracy in 2046 BS. Why?
Ans:- Political parties are playing very important roles in establishment of democracy since 1993 BS. But in the Restoration of multi-party democracy there was Great rule of political party. When king Mahendra Ban all the political party on 1st poush 2017 BS. And started Panchayat system and later on made reformed Panchayat system. The ruling system was very fast and hard as well as suppressive but also political parties were working secretly for establishment of democracy.
Yes, the role of political party was important in the Restoration of multi-party democracy in 2046 because of given reasons:
i) The national conference of Nepal Congress was held from 5th to 7th Magh 2076 BS under leadership of Ganesh Mansingh and movement was started against Panchayat system.
ii) Political parties awarded the people about their rights and made them conscious.
iii) Political parties asked the help from Indian Army, news reporter, civil servants etc. to make their movement successful and restore multiparty democracy.
iv) Finally on 26th Chaitra 2046 political party Nepali Congress became successful to restore democracy.
Thus, there is great role of political party in the Restoration of multi-party democracy.
3. “The historical peoples mass movement of 2062/63 became successful only by the unified effort of the political parties. “justify this statement.
Ans:- Yes, the given statement is absolutely true that the historical peoples mass movement of 2062/63 became successful only by the unified effort of the political parties. Although the multi-party democracy was established in Nepal on 26th Chaitra 2046 B.S there was political instability in Nepal. After that royal massacre occurred on 19th Jestha 2058 B.S in which king Birendra was killed and after that all powers are exercised by king Gyanendra banning all political parties. During his rule people were hardly suppressed and provided with rights. But political helped to success the people’s mass movement 2062/63 and remove Gyanendra. The roles of political party are listed below:
i) They went Delhi and 12 points agreement was signed between 7 parties alliance and CIN on 7th Mangsir 2062 BS and launched a peace movement.
ii) Political parties made people fully aware about their rights and encouraged them to conduct a peaceful movement.
iii) Although king Gyanendra tried to ban the political party and stop movement but people and also political party give continuity to the movement.
iv) Finally, political party became successful to remove king Gyanendra on 11th Baisakh 2063 B.S.
4. What is multi-party system? Why it is important?
Ans:- Multi party government system refers to the system of government where there are two or more political parties which compete in election and rule over the state as a single party. This type of government system is called multi-party government system.
The importance of multi-party government system are listed below:
i) They work for the welfare of nation and the citizen of nation. If they cannot fulfill the targeted desire and work then election is held and other party is elected.
ii) There is always competition among parties to gain popularity. Hence, development works become faster.
iii) There is transparency in the works of government and corruption will be decreased.
iv) Public participation increases in the works of national benefit and development works became smooth.
v) Democracy can be maintained for a long time and peace can be maintained in the country.
vi) Government becomes more responsible towards citizen and their work of national benefit.
5. What provision has been made by the election commission relating to the registration of political party? Find and present in the class.
Ans:- A group of people organized to acquire and exercise the political powers are called political parties. In Nepal the constitution has made some provision for the registration of political party under part -29. Some of the provisions are listed below:
i) The rules and regulation of party must be democratic.
ii) Every party must put inclusive system in which women, Dalit including the members of neglected and suppressed group in group member.
iii) There should be periodic election process at certain interval and should not jeopardize the national unity.
iv) The income source and names as well as address of executive members should be mentioned.
v) The annual auditing report of party and signature of 10000 voters should be submitted to election commission.
Thus, political party must possess all the above provision then only they got registration from election commission.
6. Mention the rules of political party.
Ans:- The roles of political party are listed below:
i) Protection and promotion of national integrity and sovereignty through public support.
ii) Performing as bridge between government and people.
iii) Establishment of democracy and strengthening the democracy.
iv) Involvement in works of public welfare.
v) Maintaining good governance and peace in the country.
vi) Creation of public awareness against social problems and evils.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-7 Election Process
A. Short answer questions
1. What is an election? Why it is important?
Ans:- Election is a legitimate process in which the voters choose their representatives or participate in the decision making process using their voting rights. It is important to form the government according to the wish of people, to make decisions about future plan, policy and program, to make government responsible to the people, to strengthen and developed a democracy through periodic election and to maintain the legitimacy of government in in National and international level through election.
2. What is meant by electoral system? Give short introduction of the electoral systems being practiced in Nepal at present.
Ans:- electoral system is a method of election which has its own rule of casting votes, counting the votes and giving a final result. Following are the electoral system being practiced in Nepal at present:
a) First Past The Post Electoral System:-
It is an electoral system in which the one who receives more votes than any other candidates get elected. This system is used to elect a single candidate from an election constituency in which voters cast their votes directly to their preferred candidate.
b) Proportional Electoral System:-
It is an electoral system in which the whole countries considered a single constituency. The voters cast their vote to their preferred political party and the percentage of the popular vote won by the party is converted into seats.
3. Write short introduction to the following.
a) Electoral roll:-
Electoral roll is an official list off the names and address of the people in a specific area who are entitled to vote in an election. It is updated by the election commission every year and includes the name who attain 18 years of age to ascertain the voting right of people who are Nepalese citizens.
b) Election code of conduct:-
It is a set of rules or guidelines issued by the election commission during the election. It should be abided by the candidates, political parties, government, public institutions, employees, mass media, INGOs, observers, etc.
c) Polling station:-
It is officially chosen for casting votes during an election. It is also called voting booth. Generally, public places such as school, playground, etc. are chosen as the polling station.
d) Voter identity card:-
Voter identity card is needed for casting vote in the election. It includes the name, address, identity card no, Photograph of voter. It is called biometrics voter identity card.
4. What are the qualifications required for the member of Federal Parliament?
Ans:- Person who meet the following requirements are considered eligible to be the candidate for the member of Federal Parliament:
i) Citizen of Nepal.
ii) Has attained 25 years of age for the House of Representative and 35 years of age for the National Assembly.
iii) Has not been punished for any criminal offence involving moral turpitude.
iv) Not ineligible under any law.
v) Not holding an office of profit.
5. Mention the functions of polling officer.
Ans:- The functions of polling officer are listed below:
i) To conduct the election in concerned booth.
ii) To make necessary arrangement of booth.
iii) To arrange security.
iv) To begin and complete the election in scheduled time and with legal process.
v) To give decision on any filed cases and other problem.
B. Long answer questions.
1. What are the bodies to conduct election in Nepal? Write short description of each.
Ans:- The bodies of conduct election in Nepal are as follows:
a) Election Commission:-
The Constitution of Nepal has made a provision of Election Commission in part 24. There is a Chief Election Commissioner and four other Commissioners in the election commission. It conducts, supervises, directs and controls the election of the President, the Vice President,Federal Parliament,Provincial Assemblies, local bodies. It also prepares the voters list for the purpose of election.
b) Election officer:-
When the date of election is announced, the Election Commission appoints the Election Officers. The Election Officers conduct the election in different election constituencies.
c) Polling officer:-
Polling officers are appointed to conduct the election in different polling centres. They have to make necessary arrangement of booth, security management, begin and complete the election in scheduled time and with legal process. They have to stop or postpone the election if needed and make a decision on any filed cases and other problems. They also hold the responsibility to submit the ballot box to concerned authority and if needed count the votes in the local election.
2. The use of Electronic Voting Machines instead of stamping on ballot paper has been started in Nepal
as well. What simplicities is and difficulties may it bring? Write.
Ans:- The use of Electronic Voting Machines instead of stamping on ballot paper has been started in Nepal as well. It may bring following simplicities and difficulties:
i) Saving of printing cost of ballot paper.
ii) They may not be conflict in counting vote.
iii) There is less chance of invalidity of votes.
iv) It makes the voting process fast.
i) It is uneasy to use the machine in the place where there is no electricity.
ii) There is chance of damage of machine during voting.
iii) Difficult to paste the symbols in the key board as there are more numbers of candidates.
iv) It is very difficult for old and illiterate people to use the machine.
3. Some of the countries in the world have made the provision of rejection of vote in these days. It is also known as “None of The Above-(NOTA)”. Is it appropriate in our context? Why? Give reasons.
Ans:- In the context of Nepal, the provision of None of the above (NOTA) should be included in my opinion. People should be given the right to reject the candidates if they dislike all the candidates. There are many leaders who distribute sweet dream to people to get vote but as they win they do nothing for the sake of people. It has become a trend in the context of Nepal. So this provision is very useful for those voters who like to use voting right but don’t like to choose any corrupt candidates.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-8 Role of Citizens in the Election
Role of Citizens in the Election
A. Short answer questions
1. Prepare a model of dialogue between two friends who were discussing the role of a responsible citizen in the election.
Ans:- (Pooja and Sonam are discussing about the role of a responsible citizen in the election)
Pooja : Hi Sonam, what you are reading now?
Sonam: Hi puja, I am reading an election manifesto prepared for the election.
Pooja : Is it necessary to study the manifesto?
Sonam: Yes Pooja, it is our duty to select the best party in the election to develop our country.
Pooja : What the people should do in the time of election?
Sonam: Good question. Listen! Election is the base of democracy. To cast the vote is the right and duty of citizen. We should use our voting right to select capable, energetic candidate for the development of nation. Not only this, we should teach our neighbor about the technique of casting vote, encourage the votes to participate in the election, we should counsel the voters to not to fall in greed and threat. We can support to conduct election in peaceful environment. We also can help the Election commission as volunteer.
Pooja : thank you so much for your information.
(Both of them exit from the room for refreshment)
2. “A good citizen must participate in an election”. Prepare a dialogue on this topic.
Ans:- (A conversation between Sunil and Gauri Shankar on election)
Sunil : “Gauri Shankar, can you tell me what is an election?”
Gauri Shankar : “Election is a democratic process to choose the candidates for various posts through the voting.”
Sunil : “Gauri Shankar, can you tell me why a good citizen must participate in election?”
Gauri Shankar : “Of course Sunil, you have asked a good question. Listen, election is an important event of a country because we can choose our government by ourselves through the election. If we participate in the election and vote to the right person, a good governance is possible. After all it is a duty of every citizen to take part in election.”
Sunil : “What will happen if we do not participate in any election, Gauri Shankar?”
Gauri Shankar : “If good citizens do not participate in election, wrong persons may go to the power and country may not develop properly. Corruption main take place and they may be political instability in the country which is not good for the country as well as the people.”
Sunil : “What types of election there in the country and who are to be elected?”
Gauri Shankar : “There are various types of election that take place in our country such as election for parliament, election of local bodies like VDC, municipality, DDC, etc. The most Richard the right candidates in all these bodies so that country can be ruled smoothly and develop faster”.
Sunil : “Thank you Gauri Shankar for your information. I will also take part in all the election and choose the right candidate.”
3. What suggestions would you give to your guardians and neighbor to cast the vote?
Ans:- I would suggest in the following ways to my guardians and neighbor to cast their vote:
i) To select good, active, patriotic and capable candidate.
ii) To stamp on only one symbol and to fold the ballot paper properly.
iii) To go to the polling booth turn-by-turn.
iv) To stand in queue to cast vote.
v) To carry the voter identity card and remind others to do the same.
vi) Not to fall for greed and threat.
4. How do you convince your family members who don’t wish to vote in the election?
Ans:- I will convince my family members who don’t wish to vote in the election in the following ways:
i) To get voting right is great chance to elect right candidate.
ii) To vote is to utilize the civic right.
iii) We can select right candidate who can run the government, make act, laws and rules.
iv) A single vote also has great importance in the election to elect right candidate.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-9 Human Rights and National and International Agencies
Human Rights and National and International Agencies
A. Short Answer Questions
1. Give short introduction to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Ans:- Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings. We all are equal entitled to our human rights without discrimination. The international community promised never to allow violent incidents again. The leaders of the world decided to guarantee the rights of every people. Thus, the UN General Assembly adopted The Universal Declaration of Human Rights on 10th December, 1948 AD. Eleanor Roosevelt who was the first person to initiate the concept of human rights. She was also the chairperson of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights drafting committee. She is recognized as the driving force for the approval and issue of first Universal Declaration of Human Rights from the UN General Assembly. There are 30 articles in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
2. Differentiate between human rights and fundamental rights in four points.
Ans:- The differences between human rights and fundamental rights are as follows:
|Human rights||Fundamental rights|
|i) It is a widespread expression.||i) It is limited expression.|
|ii) It comes under the international law.||ii) It comes under the national law.|
|iii) It is similar in all the countries.||iii) It may differ from country to country.|
|iv) International laws make the human rights monitoring mechanism.||iv) Constitution of the country makes the provision of protection and promotion of fundamental rights.|
3. Prepare a model of speech on “right to personal freedom and self-defense to everyone is the foundation of human rights”.
Guests, judge committee, teachers my dear friends,
Today I am going to express my views on “Right to personal freedom and self-defense to everyone in the foundation of human rights”. Before starting my speech I am very grateful to the organizer committee who gave me an opportunity to express my view.
Human rights refer to the privileges that are required for all round development of a personality like social, economic and intellectual. They are inherent in all human being and remain indivisible. The main theme of human right is personal freedom and self-defense. It includes fooding, clothing, reading, writing, free movement, adopting occupation etc. The most important thing in the world is personal freedom. If a person is free he / she can develop personality and career. No one can live in insecurity, fear, terror etc. Everyone loves personal freedom. If a person is free from fear, terror, violence, war, insecurity, it is self-defense, right?
Finally, I like to emphasize that right to personal freedom and self-defense to everyone in the foundation of human rights.
4. How is National Human Rights Commission constituted? What is its role in the protection of human rights?
Ans:- National Human Rights Commission is constituted with the chairperson and four other members appointed by the president on the recommendation of constitutional council for a term of six years. It plays very important role to protect, promote and respect human rights. It conducts inquiries, recommends for action against the violator. It publicizes the name of any official, persons or bodies if found guilty. The motto of NHRC dignity, equality and justice for all.
5. “Fundamental rights are human rights guaranteed by the state to its citizens.” Present your logics on it.
Ans:- Constitution plays significant roles to provide Human Rights in the citizens. Every state provides human rights to its citizens through fundamental rights. In the context of Nepal too, under fundamental rights following articles and provisions of human rights are mentioned:
i) Under ‘Right to equality’ article 1 and 2 of human right is mentioned.
ii) In ‘Right to freedom’ provision of article 3 of human right is included.
iii) Similarly, article 4 of human right is included in ‘Right against exploitation’.
iv) The explanation of article 26 of human right is explained in ‘right to children’.
v) At last, the provision of article 29 of human right is including in civic duties of the constitution. So that, we can understand that the rights mentioned in constitution are the human rights.
6. Mention the contribution of Eleanor Roosevelt.
Ans:- Eleanor Roosevelt is a role model for every woman in the world. She was dedicated in the search of human right. She always advocated that every human being should get chance to live freely everywhere. According to her, there should not be any discrimination on ground of caste, race, language, region, religion, job community, etc. After long term of reports and research, she prepared a human right manifesto and presented in UN General Assembly. The UN General Assembly adopted ‘The Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ on 10th December 1948 AD. After this, she is known all over the world as pioneer of human right. Because of her tireless effort, the people of the world got human right. She supported every country to be established as a legal state because of her efforts, several fundamental rights are included in constitution of the different countries.
7. How do you honor the individual or authority working to protect and promote the human rights?
Ans:- I will honor the individual or authority working to protect and promote the human right in the given ways:
i) By providing national awards, appreciation letters to such people.
ii) By publishing the biography of such great personalities.
iii) By publicizing the contribution of such persons in the different electronic and print Medias.
iv) By providing public owner to such persons.
8. How does the freedom to assemble peacefully guarantee the acquisition of human rights? Introduce your logics.
Ans:- ‘ Right to freedom’ is the fundamental right of Nepalese people mentioned in constitution. Under this right, everyone can assemble peacefully without arms and weapons. There won’t be any discrimination between the people assembled together. There is the opportunity to express our ideas, views, opinion etc. There is not discriminating behavior towards each other on ground of class, caste, gender, community, religion, region etc. There is a provision to assemble freely without weapons which ensures peace, security, cooperation, etc. So, the freedom of assemble peacefully guarantee the acquisition of human rights.
B. Long answer questions
1. Various National and international authorities concerned with human rights are working in Nepal for the the protection of human rights. Give short introduction and role of the following agencies in the protection of human rights.
a) National Human Rights Commission:-
It is a constitutional organ of Nepal. It was established in 2057 BS. It is constituted with a chairperson and four other members appointed by the president on the recommendation of constitutional council for a term of six years. it has been working for the protection and promotion of Human Rights in the country.” Dignity, equality and justice for all” is the main motto of this agency.
b) Informal Sector Service Centre (INSEC):-
It has been working in the sector of human rights and fundamental rights since 1988 AD. It was started with the objective of protecting the rights of people engaged in informal sectors. It has significantly contributed in protecting and promoting the fundamental rights of people in almost all sectors. It has been publishing the Human Rights Year Book every year.
c) Amnesty International:-
It is an international agency involved in the sector of human rights. It was established in 1961 AD in London with the objectives to conduct please search and generate action to prevent and grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated. It works to mobilize public opinion to put pressure on governments that don’t take actions against abuse. This organization was awarded with Nobel peace prize in 1977 AD and the United Nations prize in the field of human rights in 1978 AD for its “campaign against torture”.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-10 Rights of Women and Indigenous Nationality
Unit-5 Lesson -10
Rights of Women and Indigenous Nationality
A. Short Answer Questions
1. Discuss about the measures of women empowerment.
Ans:- The measures for empowerment are as follows:
i) Everyone should have interest to enhance human civilization by providing education to women.
ii) Both men and women should be given equal legal rights and opportunities.
iii) Awareness programs, strict control against child marriage and domestic violence.
iv) Women should be given skillful, vocational, and income generating trainings.
v) The attitude towards women should be changed.
2. “Rights of women cannot be established without promoting the social status of women.” Present your logic on this statement.
Ans:- Promotion of the social status of women refers to change the attitude of family and society towards women. It is not an easy task to change the status of women. For this, all the social problems and evils like dowry, Jhuma, deuki, chaupadi, etc should be legally ended. Strict implementation of rule and law should be carried out to end girl trafficking, domestic violence, etc. There must be the provision of compulsory and free education for women. Gender equality should be maintained. Women should be given the skillful and vocational training to empower them.
3. What is meant by the rights of indigenous nationalities? Mention rights to be acquired by the indigenous nationalities.
Ans:- The legal and constitutional right and facilities obtained by indigenous nationalities is mint as the right of indigenous nationalities. The rights to be acquired by the indigenous nationalities are listed below:
i) Right to get free and compulsory basic education.
ii) Right to get education in child friendly environment in school.
iii) Right to preserve and promote their script, language and civilization.
iv) Right to powerful presence in the various state bodies and inclusive representation.
v) Right to get special facilities 4 housing, employment and services, etc.
4. “It is the right of indigenous nationalities to get basic education in mother tongue”. Present your opinion in its support.
Ans:- Mother Tongue is the language learnt by the children at their own home from their mother. Out of 123 languages spoken in Nepal, 59 languages are used by the indigenous nationalities. Some of the languages have written script whereas some are only in spoken form. It is the fundamental right that every children have right to get basic education in their mother tongue. If the children are provided education in mother tongue, they can understand and language can be preserved. There will be the existence of all indigenous nationalities in history. The language can be kept alive for future generation. The country becomes lingually and culturally strong. So, it is the right of indigenous nationalities to get basic education in mother tongue.
B. Long Answer Questions
1. What is meant by the right of women? Mention the provisions made in the constitution, laws and policy making level to establish the right of women.
Ans:- The rights which are provided to women for their overall development and empowerment is meant as the rights of women. Following are the provision made in the constitution, laws and policy making level to establish the rights of women are:
i) Citizenship certificate can be acquired from the name of mother.
ii) End the gender discrimination.
iii) Equal parental rights to women without gender discrimination.
iv) Equal rights of couple in the affair of property and family.
v) Participation of women in all state structures and bodies on the basis of proportional inclusive principle.
vi) Provision of rights to women for safe motherhood and reproductive health.
vii) Rights to social security for economical weak, disable and helpless and single women as well.
2. Who are Indigenous Nationality? Mention the efforts made by the state to establish the rights of Indigenous Nationalities.
Ans:- Indigenous Nationalities are a tribe or community having their own mother tongue and traditional rites and customs, distinct cultural identity, distinct social structure and written or unwritten history. There are 59 castes a people listed in indigenous nationalities. Following are the efforts made by the state to establish the rights of indigenous nationalities:
i) Establishment of Indigenous Nationalities Commission.
ii) Provision of getting basic education in mother tongue.
iii) Provision of scholarship.
iv) Management of curriculum, textbooks, teaching and learning materials and teachers to provide education in their mother tongue.
v) The state has taken the principle of participation for equal access and opportunity in various state bodies.
Unit:-5, Lesson:-11Citizen Identity and Citizenship
Citizen Identity and Citizenship
A. Short Answer Questions
1. Prepare a model of speech for an oratory program on the topic”citizenship is the basis to give an identity to the citizen”.
Guests, judges, teachers and my friends,
I am very much thankful to the organizing committee who provided me a chance to delivery my view on ‘Citizenship is the basis to give an identity to the citizen’.
Citizenship is the legal status of being a citizen of a country. This is lawful base to identify the person to which country he / she belongs to. It resembles the nationality of the citizen in any part of the world. We can get citizenship very easily. If someone is deprived of citizenship, he feels very panic and feels that his/her identity is lost. If a person doesn’t get citizenship, he / she is deprived of all sort of rights and facilities. That’s why citizenship is an important document that identifies us in the world. At last, I want to say that citizenship is one and only base to identify the citizen.
2. Differentiate between Nationality and Citizenship.
Ans:- Following are the differences between Nationality and Citizenship:
|i) It is emotional relationship with the state.||i) It is the legal relationship with the state.|
|ii) It is permanent in nature and cannot be quitted.||ii) It is temporary in nature and can be quitted.|
|iii) It adopts the collective concept.||iii) It adopts the individual concept.|
|iv) It remains even residing in foreign country.||iv) It can be acquired by residing in the state.|
|v) It is a widespread concept.||v) It is limited concept.|
3. What is the difference between the Citizenship by Descent and Naturalized Citizenship?
Ans:- The differences between the Citizenship by Descent and Naturalized Citizenship were as follows:
|Citizenship by Descent||Naturalized Citizenship|
|i) Citizenship provided to the children whose parents are citizen of Nepal is citizenship by Descent.||i) Citizenship provided to the children whose mother is Nepali citizen and father is found to be foreign citizen, the citizenship of such person is converted into naturalized citizenship.|
|ii) Prior to commencement of the present constitution, the parents who have got the citizenship by descent and their children can get citizenship by descent.||ii) A foreign woman who has matrimonial relationship with the citizen of Nepal, if she wishes may obtain naturalized citizenship of Nepal.|
|iii) A person who is born in Nepal from a woman who is a citizen of Nepal and has resided in Nepal and whose father can’t be traced can be provided the citizenship by descent.||iii) A person born from a woman who is citizen of Nepal and married to a foreign citizen, the person may get the naturalized citizenship of Nepal if he / she is permanently residing in Nepal.|
4. The person who acquires the Non- Resident Nepalese Citizenship cannot enjoy all the rights. Should they be limited within the rights given to them or not? Present you logic.
Ans:- Non Resident Nepalese are the people who have acquired the citizenship of a foreign country and have resided in a country other than a member state of the SAARC. The present constitution has made the provision to grant the citizenship to the NRN. Such citizenship is called Non Resident Nepalese citizenship. This should not be limited within the rights given to them due to the following reasons:
i) They are also the Nepali although living in abroad.
ii) They spent their income in foreign land for the development of Nepal.
iii) They may be compulsion for them to stay far away from family and Nepalese society.
iv) Such NRN have been supporting in the sector of infrastructure like education, health, communication, electricity etc.
So that, NRN also should be given the citizenship similar to the Nepalese.
B. Long Answer Questions
1. What is citizenship? Explain the various bases to obtain citizenship certificate according to the Constitution of Nepal.
Ans:- The legal status of being a citizen of a country is citizenship. The various bases to obtain citizenship certificate according to the constitution of Nepal is explained below:
a) Citizenship by Descent
According to the constitution of Nepal, Citizenship by Descent can be acquired on the basis of following persons:
i) A person whose father or mother was a citizen of Nepal at his or her birth.
ii) A child of a citizen having acquired the citizenship of Nepal by birth prior to the commencement of Nepal can, upon attaining majority, acquire the citizenship of Nepal by descent if the child’s father and mother both are citizens of Nepal.
iii) Every minor who is found within Nepal and the whereabouts of whose father and mother are not non can, until the father or mother of the child is traced, be a citizen of Nepal by descent.
iv) A person who is born in Nepal from a woman who is a citizen of Nepal and has resided in Nepal and whose father is not traced can be provided with the citizenship of Nepal by descent.
b) Naturalized Citizenship
According to the Constitution of Nepal, the following are the bases to acquire the Naturalized Citizenship of Nepal:
i) A person who is born in Nepal from a woman who is a citizen of Nepal and has resided in Nepal and whose father is not traced can be provided with the citizenship of Nepal by descent. Provided that in case his or her father is found to be a foreign citizen, the citizenship of such person shall be converted into naturalized citizenship as provided for in the federal law.
ii) A foreign woman who has matrimonial relationship with the citizen of Nepal, if she so wishes, may obtain the naturalized citizenship of Nepal as provided for in the federal law.
iii) In the case of a person born from a woman who is a citizen of Nepal and married to a foreign citizen, the person may acquire the naturalized citizenship of Nepal in accordance with the federal law if she or he has permanently resided in Nepal and has not acquired the citizenship of a foreign country.
c) Honorary Citizenship
According to the constitution of Nepal, the government of Nepal may grant the honorary citizenship of Nepal to any foreigner who has contributed to enhance the benefit, pride and prestige of Nepal. The honorary citizenship has been granted to Dr. Tony Hegen of Switzerland and sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand.
d) Non Resident Nepalese Citizenship
The non-residential citizenship of Nepal is granted to a person who has acquired the citizenship of a foreign country, has resided in a country other than a member state of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, and who or whose father or mother, grandfather or grandmother was previously a citizen of Nepal by decent or birth but subsequently acquired the citizenship of the foreign country that such person main enjoy economic, social and cultural rights in accordance with the federal law.